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Chaerophyllum Taxa treated:

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 © Flora Nordica

by Lars Fröberg
(6b, 20081024)

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Chaerophyllum L.

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 258 (1753).
Annual, biennial or perennial, glabrous or often hairy herbs. Stem usually with bristles at the base, emanating from purplish patches, usually swollen below the nodes. Leaves pinnate, usually with bristles or hairs. Bracts few or absent. Umbellules usually with a short-stalked terminal flower. Bractlets several, usually  ciliate. Flowers not or slightly zygomorphic, without sepals, with white petals. Fruit elongated in outline, slightly laterally flattened; carpophore flattened, divided or almost entire. Mericarps with low and broad ridges, with a distinct  to indistinct ventral groove, and with a waist below the stylopodium; valleculae   as wide as the ridges, each with one light to dark brown vitta.
Chromosome base-number x=7, 11.
1 Leaflets on lower leaves entire, usually longer than 7 cm 5. C. aromaticum
- Leaflets on lower leaves pinnatifid, usually shorter than 7 cm 2
2 Apical leaf-lobes/teeth less than 1.3 times as long as wide; rays with bristles 1. C. temulum
- Apical leaf-lobes/teeth more than 1.4 times as long as wide; rays glabrous 3
3 Plant with a horizontal rhizome; apical lobes of upper leaves triangularly ovate to lanceolate, with a length/width ratio less than 5 4. C. aureum
- Plant with a vertical, swelled taproot; apical lobes of upper leaves usually linear, with a length/width ratio greater than 5 4
4 Bractlets 3–6, the largest ones 0.5–1.2 mm wide after anthesis; styles at fruiting stage 0.1 mm thick, ± oblique or deflexed (not erect) 2. C. bulbosum
- Bractlets 6–11, the largest ones 1–2.5 mm wide after anthesis; styles at fruiting stage 0.15–0.3 mm thick, erect or slightly oblique 3. C. prescottii

1. Chaerophyllum temulum L.         map          ill.

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 258 (1753). – C. temulentum L. (1755), nom. illeg. – Type: Linnaean Herbarium 365.3 (LINN) lectotype, sel. by Reduron & Jarvis, Taxon 41: 560 (1992).

D Hulsvøb. F myrkkykirveli. N svimekjeks. S hårkörvel.

Hemicryptophyte (biennial) or sometimes therophyte. To 70 cm; tap­root 2–6.5 mm thick. Stem solid, not or slightly swollen below the nodes; basal part 1.5–4.5 mm thick, angled or indistinctly sulcate, rarely terete, with purplish patches or entirely purplish, rarely greenish, sometimes distinctly glaucous, with scattered, 0.1–2.5 mm long, deflexed hairs, and usually also ± sparsely bristly; upper internodes usually angled, hairy, without bristles. Leaves 2–6 at the base and 3–6 on the stem, the innermost basal or the lowest cauline one is the largest; sheath rather narrow, distinctly hairy, usually not purplish, with indistinctly membranous margins; petiole 4–13 cm; blade 2(–3)-pinnate, thin, usually distinctly hairy on both sides, 5.5–14(–19) × 4–13 cm (length/width ratio (0.9–)1.1–1.6). Primary leaflets (2–)3(–4) pairs; angle leaflet/rachis 35–65°; longest petiolules 7–17(–47) mm. Ultimate leaflets (2–)3-pinnatifid, with (2–)4–6(–7) pairs of lobes/teeth; petiolule 4–18(–21) mm; blade (10–)15–40(–48) × (11–)17–35(–40) mm (length/width ratio 0.9–1.4); base broadly cuneate to cordate. Ultimate lobes 1–2.2(–3.6) × 0.8–2.4(–4.2) mm (length/width ratio 0.6–1.3); apices acuminate to mucronate, usually with white tips.
Umbels slightly convex, 2.5–3 cm high and 5–6 cm wide, usually drooping before anthesis; peduncle (3–)4.5–9 cm; rays straight or slightly inwards-curved, 2–2.9 cm, with few to many antrorse bristles. Bracts 0–2(–6). Umbellules 7–14, usually fewer in the primary umbel; pedicels 0.6–0.9 cm, glabrous. Bractlets 6–8(–9), persistent, 2–4.5 × 0.5–1.5 mm; border ciliate and indistinctly membranous. Flowers 17–28 per umbellule; petals white with a brown-red midvein, 1.2–1.9 × 0.9–1.8 mm, bifid (apical cut 0.4–1 mm deep); filaments 0.9–1.6 mm; anthers 0.3–0.5 mm. Fruit narrowly ovate to lanceolate in outline. Mericarps (3.9–)4.5–5.5 × 0.7–1.2 × 0.7–1 mm, with a length/width ratio of 4.1–6.1(–7.6); vittae distinct; stylopodium high-arched, 0.3–0.4 mm wide; style 0.3–0.5 mm, ± erect. – Early summer to mid-summer.
2n=14 (S Sk); 2n=14 + 0–1B (S Sk). – [2n=14, 22]
Distribution. Nem.–(Sbor)[–MBor] – Possibly indigenous to D and southeastern S; further north a later introduction. – D common in the eastern part of the country and NJy, fairly rare in VJy and western SJy. N a casual ballast alien, recently found in various ruderal places; VA Kristiansand since 1957 but not well established, Øf Fredrikstad 1894, Ak Oslo (19th century, 1999), Bu Hurum 2002–04, Ro Forsand and Strand, NT Levanger 1950. S fairly common to scattered in coastal lowlands of Sk and Bl, southeastern Klm (north to Oskarshamn), throughout Öl and Gtl, Vg Kinnekulle, and Srm Dalarö 1931–95 (roadside); rare and casual in the rest of Klm and Vg, SmI (6 localities, possibly locally established in Ölmstad), Hl 6 localities mainly in the south, BhG Göteborg 1989, Mölndal 1951, Vrm Alster at least since 1942 (garden weed), Ög several localities in the central plains, Nrk Stora Mellösa 1933, Hallsberg 1988, Srm 8 localities, Upl 7 localities, established at least in Stockholm (Roslagstull) until 1998. F established in V Turku (in some localities known since the 19th century), U Helsinki and EH Tampere; old casual finds from St Pori 1932 (street), KP Kokkola 1945 (storage place and garden) and OP Oulu 1882 (docks). – Unconfirmed records from S Gst Gävle, Hls Söderhamn 1898 (ballast) and LL Jokkmokk 1901 (1 non-flowering specimen, with oats; Sylvén & Bågenholm 1902), doubtful.
Temperate Europe.
Habitat. Moderately dry, nutrient- and base-rich soil in light-open to shady sites; possibly indigenous to alvar karst (S Öl) and deciduous woodland (e.g. glades, edges, thickets) in D and southern S. Also in roadsides, hedges, parks, gardens, around farms and on ruderal ground (apophytic or alien).
Biology. Usually regarded as poisonous (French 1971). – In all umbels, the outer umbellules have large bisexual flowers and small male ones; usually, the inner umbellules only have male flowers.
Nomenclature. Linnaeus described Chaerophyllum temulum in the first edition of Species plantarum (Linnaeus 1753), but altered the epithet to temulentum in the second edition of Flora Suecica (Linnaeus 1755). However, the epithet temulum has priority, and that epithet was also used again later, e.g. in the second edition of Species plantarum (Linnaeus 1762).
Similar taxa see Anthriscus sylvestris.

2. Chaerophyllum bulbosum L.       map          ill.

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 258 (1753). – Type: Linnaean Herbarium 365.2 (LINN) lectotype, sel. by Hedge & Lamond, Fl. Iranica 162: 91 (1987).

D Kørvelroe. F mukulakirveli. N knollkjeks. S rotkörvel.

Literature. Hämet-Ahti 1967.

Hemicryptophyte. Biennial or more long-lived hapaxanth, to 145(–290) cm; taproot globose or elongated, 1–3 × 0.9–2.3 cm. Stem hollow, ± swollen below the nodes; basal part 3–9 mm thick, terete or angled, rarely sulcate, with purplish patches or entirely purplish, rarely greenish, ± glaucous, with a sparse to dense indumentum of 0.5–2 mm long, deflexed bristles; upper internodes usually angled, glabrous. Leaves 9–13 on the stem (basal leaves withering before anthesis), one of the 4 lowest is the largest; sheath narrow, glabrous, usually not purplish, with indistinctly membranous margins; petiole 4–16(–20) cm; blade (2–)3(–4)-pinnate, bristly (upper leaves glabrous), 6–14(–18) × 4–12(–16) cm, with a length/width ratio of 1–1.4(–1.7). Primary leaflets (4–)5(–6) pairs; angle leaflet/rachis 35–65°; longest petiolules 7–21 mm. Ultimate leaflets 2(–3)-pinnatifid, with 5–9 pairs of lobes/teeth; petiolule 3–7(–10) mm; blade 13–23(–42) × 9–19(–30) mm (length/width ratio 1.1–1.8); base broadly cuneate to cordate. Ultimate lobes 1.8–3.9(–5) × 0.7–1.8(–2.4) mm, with a length/width ratio of 1.6–3 (in upper leaves more elongated, (7–)10–23 × 0.4–1 mm, with a length/width ratio of 12–37); apices acute to acuminate, usually with slightly purplish tips.
Umbels slightly convex, 2–3(–4) cm high and 4.5–9 cm wide; peduncle 3–7 cm; rays straight or slightly inwards-curved, 2–4.5(–7.5) cm, glabrous. Bracts 0–2. Umbellules 11–20(–23); pedicels 0.3–0.9(–1.1) cm, glabrous. Bractlets 3–4(–6), usually persistent, 2.5–7(–8) × 0.5–1.2 mm, not or almost not confluent at the base; border distinctly membranous, ciliate or not. Flowers 13–22 per umbellule; petals 0.9–1.8(–2.3) × 0.8–2.4 mm, bifid (apical cut 0.3–0.9 mm deep); filaments 0.8–1.7 mm; anthers 0.3–0.4(–0.5) mm. Fruit narrowly ovate to lanceolate in outline. Mericarps 4.1–6.2 × 0.8–1.5 × 0.8–1.3 mm, with a length/width ratio of (2.7–)3.7–6.6(–7.4); vittae distinct; stylopodium low-arched, 0.4–0.7 mm wide; style 0.4–0.9 mm long, 0.1 mm thick, spreading to deflexed. – Mid-summer.
Distribution and habitat. Earlier grown as a root vegetable and sometimes found as a relic in gardens and parks, or escaped e.g. in roadsides; also brought in with cereals, e.g. at mills. On dry or moderately dry mull-rich soil in light-open to slightly shady habitats, often occurring in large numbers; sensitive to grazing. – D ØJy Frederica 2004, FyL Odense (abandoned garden, known since 2001). N Te Skien 1924, 1935, 1961–98 (Bøle, silo), ST Skaun 1912–56 (Buvik, mill); casual in Ho Osterøy 1915 (Bruvik, railway). S Sk 4 localities, resident at least in Lomma (Alnarp 1937–56, park) and Säby (since 1984, roadbank), Bl Augerum (Kummeln) since 1946 (naturalized garden relic), Karlskrona 1891, Gtl Endre (Hulte) known since 1893 (spread from cultivation), Ög Källstad 1887 (field), Rogslösa 1995 (probably resident), Östra Eneby 1881 (escape), Nrk Längbro 1901–28, 1989, 2007 (watermill), Srm 4 localities, resident e.g. in Floda since 1982 and Julita since 1944, Upl Stockholm (established in Frescati since 1884, from botanical garden), Uppsala 1920’s and 30’s (escaped from botanical garden); casual in BhG Styrsö (Känsö) 1921, Nb Haparanda 1928. F established in V Kaarina, U Helsinki (several localities, oldest population since 1892, also several records as a casual escape from the botanic garden), Inkoo (Fagervik manor), Nurmijärvi (Röykkä hospital), EK Virolahti 1962 (established in garden, now extinct), St Vammala; casual in V Turku 1956–58 (filling soil), PK Nurmes 1899, Kn Kajaani 1955, 1967, 1972 (escaped at farm), Suomussalmi 1959. – Unconfirmed records from D SJy Rømø mid 1990’s (seashore, disappeared 1999) and Sjæ Klint 1899, N Tr Sørreisa 1946 and S Gtl Lärbro. Records from D FyL Odense 1897 and S Upl Sandhamn 1916 were based on C. prescottii; a specimen from S Bl Tulseboda 1898 was redetermined to Anthriscus sylvestris and another from S Öl Borgholm 1962 to Conium maculatum.
C and SE Europe.
Biology. Primary and secondary umbels have both bisexual and male flowers; tertiary umbels have male flowers, sometimes intermingled with bisexual ones.
Similar taxa. Chaerophyllum bulbosum is very similar to C. prescottii (3). – Bunium bulbocastanum and Conopodium majus also have swollen subterranean organs (perennial tubers), but their lower leaves have narrow lobes, and their glabrous stems are thin and flexuous at the subterranean point of attachment to the tuber. B. bulbocastanum also differs in having 5–10 bracts and a fruit which is ovate to elliptic in outline; C. majus has 1–3 linear-lanceolate, free bractlets and a brown-black fruit which is ovate to oblong in outline. – See also the annual C. tainturieri (rare casual).

3. Chaerophyllum prescottii DC.         map          ill.

De Candolle, Prodr. 4: 225 (1830). – C. bulbosum subsp. prescottii (DC.) Nyman (1879). – Described from Altaic Siberia.

F idänkirveli. S rysskörvel.

Literature. Hämet-Ahti 1967, Mörner 1921.

Hemicryptophyte. Biennial or more long-lived hapaxanth, to 110 cm; taproot globose or elongated, 1.5–4(–5) × 1–2.5 cm. Stem hollow or sometimes solid, not to slightly swollen below the nodes; basal part 2.5–5.5(–7) mm thick, terete or angled, rarely sulcate, with purplish patches or sometimes entirely purplish, ± glaucous, densely or sparsely covered with 0.5–1.8 mm long, deflexed bristles (rarely glabrous); upper internodes usually angled, glabrous or with sparse bristles. Leaves 3–7(–9) on the stem (basal leaves withering before anthesis), the lowest one is usually the largest; sheath narrow, glabrous, sometimes purplish, with indistinctly membranous margins; petiole 4–15 cm; blade 2(–3)-pinnate, 5.5–16 × 4.5–12(–17) cm, with a length/width ratio of 0.9–1.8(–2.0). Primary leaflets (3–)4(–5) pairs; angle leaflet/rachis 40–60°; longest petiolules 3–23 mm. Ultimate leaflets 2(–3)-pinnatifid, with 3–8 pairs of lobes/teeth; petiolule 3–11(–20) mm; blade 10–33(–50) × 8–28(–36) mm (length/width ratio 0.9–2.1), without or with sparse bristles; base broadly cuneate to truncate. Ultimate lobes 2–5.5(–7) × 0.8–2.2(–2.8) mm, with a length/width ratio of 1.7–4.1 (in upper leaves more elongated, (5–)10–34 × 0.6–1.5(–3.1) mm, with a length/width ratio of 5.3–34); apices acute to acuminate, with pale, sometimes slightly purplish tips.
Umbels slightly convex, 4–5(–6) cm high and 8–14 cm wide; peduncle 8–16(–22) cm; rays somewhat inwards-curved, 4.9–8.6 cm, glabrous. Bracts 0–2(–5). Umbellules 9–18(–22); pedicels 0.7–1.2 cm, glabrous. Bractlets 6–10(–11), usually persistent, 3–7 × 1–2.5 mm, with 0–20% of the length confluent at the base; border distinctly membranous, not ciliate. Flowers 16–33 per umbellule; petals 1.2–2.1(–2.9) × 1–2.3 mm, bifid (apical cut 0.4–1 mm deep); filaments 1–2 mm; anthers 0.4–0.6 mm. Fruit lanceolate in outline. Mericarps (4.5–)5.3–8 × 0.7–1.3 × 0.7–1 mm, with a length/width ratio of (4.1–)4.6–8(–9.6); vittae distinct; stylopodium rather high-arched, 0.5–0.7 mm wide; style 0.9–1.5 mm long, 0.15–0.3 mm thick, directed upwards to slightly outwards. – Mid-summer.
2n=22 (F Ks, SoL). [2n=22]
Distribution and habitat. Usually on dry mineral soil in full sun. Probably brought in with ley seed from Russia in the 19th century and established as a weed (with hay or cereals) and in field margins in northern F and S Nb (Hämet-Ahti 1967); elsewhere mostly casual, e.g. at mills, harbours and railways, brought in with cereals in the 20th century. – D FyL Odense 1891–97 (from bird-seed). N ST Skaun 1918–45 (Buvik, mill); elsewhere casual: Ak Oslo 1906, 1915, Te Skien 1905–12, 1924 (Bøle, silo), Ho Modalen 1914 (Helland, introduced with soil from Vaksdal) and ST Trondheim 1900. S resident in Nb Pajala and Övertorneå (meadows, hay fields, field margins); casual in Gtl Slite 1920 (mill), Ög Dagsberg 1969 (mill), Srm Nacka 1916, 1923, 1933 (mill and mill dump), Upl Djurö (Sandhamn) 1916 (mill dump), Hrj Lillhärdal 1913 (ley weed), Jmt Fors 1911 (ley weed) and TL Kiruna 1909 (with grass-seed). F scattered to rather common in the north from EnL and InL south to northeastern PeP and Kn Hyrynsalmi, Kajaani 1916, Suomussalmi 1906–90 (Kiannaniemi, Tormua, Lehtovaara, Pirhonen); further south casual: V Turku 1942 (mill), Raisio 1951 (mill), U Helsinki 1923 (docks), Järvenpää 1934 (mill), EK Kotka 1929 (farm, with poultry fodder), EH Janakkala 1959–66 (railway at granary), EP Vaasa 1927, 1948, 1962 (Vaskiluoto, mill and harbour railway), PS Kuopio 1916 (roadside), 1934 (mill), 1958 (dry meadow), Maaninka 1908 (oatfield), Pieksänmaa 1918 (farm). There are unconfirmed records e.g. from OP and KP; a specimen from PK Nurmes was redetermined to C. bulbosum.
E Europe, W and C Asia.
Biology. Umbellules of primary and secondary umbels with bisexual flowers, sometimes with intermingled male ones; tertiary umbels (if present) usually with only male flowers.
Taxonomy. Chaerophyllum prescottii has earlier been treated as a subspecies of C. bulbosum (cf. Hämet-Ahti 1967). Although the variation of C. prescottii is considerable (e.g. in length of bractlets), there are no intermediates neither in number and width of the bractlets nor in direction and width of the styles, and the taxa thus merit specific status.
Similar taxa. Chaerophyllum prescottii and C. bulbosum (2) are very similar. Width of bractlets and width and direction of styles must be judged at fruiting stage, and many specimens collected at flowering stage are therefore difficult to identify. However, the bractlets of C. prescottii are more numerous (6–11) and rather broad, covering the top of the ray as a collar (also distinguishable at anthesis), and the anthers are slightly larger. – See also under C. bulbosum (2) and the annual C. tainturieri (rare casual).

4. Chaerophyllum aureum L.     map

Linnaeus, Sp. pl. ed. 2: 370 (1762). Described from Germany.
C. maculatum Willd. ex DC. (1830).

D Gylden Hulsvøb. F kultakirveli. N narrekjeks. S guldkörvel.

Literature. Faurholdt 2000.
Hemicryptophyte. Perennial, to 120 cm, with a 6–15 mm thick rhizome; stem and root slightly aromatic, with a scent similar to Daucus carota. Stem filled with a loose pith, and usually distinctly swollen below the nodes; basal part 3–11 mm thick, angled or sulcate, with purplish patches or sometimes entirely purplish, with or without sparse, 0.1 mm long, ± deflexed hairs, and usually with sparse, 1–2.5 mm long bristles, indistinctly glaucous; upper internodes angled to sulcate, sparsely to densely hairy, without bristles. Leaves 5–7 on the stem (basal leaves withering before anthesis), the lowest one is the largest; sheath rather narrow, hairy, sometimes with a purplish border; petiole 9–29 cm; blade 3-pinnate, thin or thick, 9–24 × 8–21(–26) cm (length/width ratio 0.9–1.2), both surfaces usually distinctly hairy. Primary leaflets 5–7 pairs; angle leaflet/rachis 45–65°; longest petiolules (10–)19–37 mm. Ultimate leaflets 2–3-pinnatifid, with 9–17 pairs of lobes/teeth; petiolule 2–8 mm; blade 30–58 (–77) × 15–34 mm, with a length/width ratio of 1.5–2.4(–3.3), base shortly attenuate to cordate. Ultimate lobes 1.4–3.5(–5) × 0.8–2.4 mm (length/width ratio 1.4–2.5); apices acute to acuminate, with white or rarely purplish tips.
Umbels ± flat, 3–4.5 cm high and 6–7 cm wide; peduncle 5–16.5 cm; rays straight, 3–5 cm, glabrous. Bracts 0–4. Umbellules 17–30; pedicels 0.5–0.9 cm, glabrous. Bractlets 7–8(–10), persistent, 3.8–8(–10) × 0.5–1.4 mm; border ciliate and usually distinctly membranous. Flowers 20–32 per umbellule; petals 1.5–3 × 1.1–2.1 mm, bifid (apical cut 0.5–1.6 mm deep); filaments 1.6–2.1 mm; anthers 0.4–0.5 mm. Fruit lanceolate to narrowly oblong in outline, green-yellow. Mericarps 7.5–10.5 × 1.2–1.9 × 1.2–1.5 mm (length/width ratio 4.2–7.5); vittae indistinct; stylopodium flattened, 0.6–1 mm wide; style 0.6–1.5 mm, directed outwards to slightly deflexed. – Mid-summer.
Distribution and habitat. Largely an escape from cultivation (in, e.g., botanic gardens), spread along roads, railways and also by forestry; at least in D ± invasive (cf. Faurholdt 2000); occasionally brought in with various transports, found in harbours and railway areas. – D LFM resident and locally common in northern Lolland (first find Vesterroder 1973); LFM Gedser 1975, Sjæ Kyndeløse 1985 and Røsnæs 1994. N Ak Oslo many records 1857–98 (established e.g. along a brook in Bolteløkken). S Sk Lund (regarded as established in botanical garden at least since 1996), Gtl Roma (Sockerbruksparken 1980–98), Visby 1917–50 (from botanical garden), SmI Bankeryd 2001 (established garden escape), Värnamo (Sjörydet) 2000 (relic of cultivation), BhG Göteborg (railway station 1906, Änggården 1943–98 (from botanical garden), Partille 1997), Vg Skallsjö 1897–1997 (garden escape), Upl Uppsala (Slottsbacken 1903–45, casual in Carolinaparken 1954 and Stadsskogen 1930’s, all from botanical garden; Norra Norby ***), Stockholm (Frescati) 1928–69 (from botanical garden), Solna (Råstasjön) 1989 (established), Sundbyberg 1992 (roadside); Nrk Kumla 1990–2007 (roadside) ), Nb Nederkalix 2006 (with throwout in woodland). F V Turku 1956–58 (filling soil), 1996 (botanic garden), U Kirkkonummi 1956–66 (railway station), EH Humppila 1921 (railway station), Lahti 1932 (dump), Tampere 2001 (established, old dump), EP brought in with German troops in Vaasa 1944–58 (Vaskiluoto harbour and railway station) and Kristiinankaupunki 1948 (docks), PeP Keminmaa 1964 (railway). – Also recorded from D FyL Mesinge 1997, Sjæ Tikøb 1999, N ST Skaun 1943 and S Gtl Sanda (3 localities in the 1990’s, with ley seed), but no vouchers seen.
C and S Europe, and SW Asia.
Biology. All umbellules usually have both bisexual and male flowers (primary flower often bisexual).
Variation. Specimens with rather broad leaflets with narrow sinuses, similar to morphotypes occurring in S Europe, have been seen from N Ak Oslo and F EH Lahti.
Similar taxa. Chaerophyllum aureum is similar to the much commoner Anthriscus sylvestris, but there are good diagnostic characters for flower and fruit: A. sylvestris has only 5 bractlets (which are shorter), mericarps with a beak, without ridges and with minute bristles at the base, and ± erect, 0.5–0.8 mm long styles. Small, non-flowering plants are not easy to identify, but may be recognized by the scent and the stem base (in C. aureum angular to indistinctly sulcate and usually slightly bristly, in A. sylvestris usually distinctly sulcate and ± hairy). – See also C. hirsutum (rare casual).

5. Chaerophyllum aromaticum L.   map

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 259 (1753). – Described from Germany (Meissen).
F tuoksukirveli. N duftkjeks. S doftkörvel.
Hemicryptophyte. Perennial, to 90(–150) cm, with a 7–13 mm thick rhizome. Stem solid, usually distinctly swollen below the nodes; basal part 4–9 mm thick, angular, with purplish patches or greenish, not glaucous, sparsely hairy and ± bristly (hairs 0.1–c. 1 mm, bristles deflexed, 1–4 mm) or glabrous. Leaves 7–10 on the stem (the lowermost ones are the largest; basal leaves only present in sterile leaf-rosettes); sheath rather narrow, usually not purplish; petiole 15–25 cm; blade 1–3-pinnate, with rather unequal lateral leaflets (almost ternately divided), 17–28 × 16–21 cm (length/width ratio 0.9–1.4), hairy (densely beneath, sparsely above). Primary leaflets (2–)3 pairs; angle leaflet/rachis 35–50°; longest petiolules 23–62 mm. Ultimate leaflets entire; petiolule 0.6–1.7 mm; blade elliptical, 6.8–10.5(–12.5) × 2.3–4(–5.5) cm (length/width ratio 2.3–3.3); base broadly  cuneate; margin serrate to doubly serrate with acuminate, usually purplish teeth.
Umbels flat to slightly convex, 3 cm high and 7–8 cm wide; peduncle 5.5–9.5 cm; rays straight or bent inwards, 2.8–4.1 cm, glabrous. Bracts 0–3, persistent. Umbellules 13–22(–28); pedicels 0.5–1.1 cm, glabrous. Bractlets 7–9, persistent, 5–7.5 × 0.8–1.7 mm; border ciliate and distinctly membranous. Flowers 23–30 per umbellule; petals 1.2–2 × 1–1.6 mm, bifid (apical cut 0.6–0.8 mm deep); filaments 1.5–2.2 mm; anthers 0.3–0.5 mm. Fruit lanceolate to narrowly oblong in outline, greenish-yellow. Mericarps 8.9–11 × 1.4–1.7 × 1.3–1.6 mm (length/width ratio 5.9–7.6); vittae ± indistinct; stylopodium flattened, 0.7–0.8 mm wide; style 1.1–1.5 mm, directed slightly outwards to outwards. – Mid-summer.
Distribution and habitat. A relic of cultivation and an escape; probably also brought in with agricultural seed. Roadsides, railway areas, woodland margins. – S Sk Malmö 1929–38 (industry area), Stora Hammar 1935, Klm Hälleberga (Gullaskruv) since 1922 (naturalized; see Trolander 1928), SmI Värnamo (Sjörydet) 2000 (relic of cultivation), BhG Göteborg (railway station 1916–40, Gullbergsgärde 1929–32, Landvetter 1931–44 (railway station, originally sown), Slottsskogen 1937), Vg Gudhem 1910 (roadside), Nb Nederkalix 2006 (with throwout in woodland). N Ak Oslo 1961 (docks). F Kn Hyrynsalmi 1954 and Kajaani 1961. – Also recorded from D Sjæ Fårevejle 1970 and S Upl, but no vouchers have been seen.
E Europe.
Biology. Umbellules of all umbels usually with both bisexual and male flowers (often with a bisexual primary flower).
Similar taxa. Leaves of Chaerophyllum aromaticum and Aegopodium podagraria may be very similar, but the latter is glabrous and lacks bracts and bractlets. – See also Angelica sylvestris.

Rare casuals

Chaerophyllum hirsutum L. 1753. (C. cicutaria Vill. 1779). F karvakirveli. S bergkörvel. – Lit.: Reduron  (2007; also ill.). – Similar to C. aureum, with pinnate to ternate leaves; petals white or pink, ciliate; fruits with conical stylopodia and long, erect or slightly diverging styles; carpophore divided to almost entire. – [2n=22]
FyL Glorup known since 1956 (park relic). F EH Teisko 1924 (escaped in garden), EP Vaasa 1949 (Vaskiluoto, railway, brought in with German troops). – Mountains of C and S Europe. – Map (not in the book).
Subsp. hirsutum is characterized by linear-lanceolate carpophores that are entire or almost entire, and leaves which are usually ternate and rather broadly lobed. The material from D belongs here, and probably also the specimen from F EP (determination uncertain since ripe fruits are lacking). – Throughout the distribution range of the species.
Subsp. villarsii (W.D.J. Koch) Briq. is characterized by filiform carpophores which are divided to the base, and leaves which are usually pinnate and narrowly lobed. The specimen from F EH belongs here. – C Europe (the Alps and the Carpathians).
Chaerophyllum tainturieri Hook. & Arn. 1835. F amerikankirveli.– Lit.: Britton & Brown (1913; ill.). – Medium-sized, usually glabrous annual reminiscent of Anthriscus cerefolium; leaves finely dissected with lanceolate leaf-lobes. Umbels usually sessile, with 2 rays; umbellules with 5 short and obtuse bractlets, and with 5–10 white flowers on unequally long pedicels. Fruit c. 5–6 mm long, with conical, 0.2–0.3 mm long stylopodia and minute styles. – [2n=22]
Probably brought in with American cereals. F V Naantali 1983 (mill). – North America. – Map (not in the book).

References To top

Britton, N.L. & Brown, A. 1913: An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions 2. Ed. 2. New York.

Cannon, J.F.M. 1968: Chaerophyllum L. In T.G. Tutin et al. (eds) Flora Europaea 2: 324–326. Cambridge.

Faurholdt, N. 2000: Gylden Hulsvøb (Chaerophyllum aureum) – under spredning på Lolland. Flora og Fauna 106: 1–4.

French, D.H. 1971: Ethnobotany of the Umbelliferae. In V.H. Heywood (ed.), The biology and chemistry of the Umbelliferae: 385–412. London. [Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 64, suppl. 1]

Hämet-Ahti, L. 1967: Chaerophyllum bulbosum L. ssp. bulbosum and ssp. prescottii (DC.) Nyman in Finland. Ann. Bot. Fenn. 4: 417–421.

Kurtto, A. & Lahti, T. 1987: Suomen putkilokasvien luettelo. Checklist of the vascular plants of Finland. Pamphlet Bot. Museum Univ. Helsinki 11.

Linnaeus, C. 1753: Species plantarum. Stockholm.

Linnaeus, C. 1755: Flora Suecica. Ed. 2. Stockholm.

Linnaeus, C. 1762: Species plantarum. Ed. 2. Stockholm.

Mörner, C.T. 1921: Några östliga växter å svensk mark. I. Chaerophyllum bulbosum L. var. prescottii (DC.) Fr. Acta Floræ Sueciæ 1: 163–176.

Sylvén, N. & Bågenholm, G. 1902: Ruderatväxter, antecknade från Lule Lappmark sommaren 1901. Bot. Not. 1902: 269–270.

Thellung, A. 1926: Umbelliferae. In G. Hegi (ed.), Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa 5: 926–1537. München.

Trolander, A.S. 1928: Chaerophyllum aromaticum L. – Meddelande från Kronobergs läns naturvetenskapliga förening. Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 22: 528–529.