Conioselinum

Taxa treated:
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by Reidar Elven
(6b, 20090513)

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Conioselinum Fisch. ex Hoffm.

Hoffmann, Gen. Pl. Umbell.: 180, xxviii (1814).
Literature. Pimenov et al. 2003.

Conioselinum tataricum Hoffm.       map       ill.

Hoffmann, Gen. Pl. Umbell., ed. 2: 135 (1816). – Described from southern Russia.
C. boreale Schischk. (1951). – C. chinense (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. subsp. boreale (Schischk.) Á. Löve & D. Löve (1976).
C. cenolophioides Turcz. (1844). – C. tataricum var. cenolophioides (Turcz.) H. Lindb. (1914).
C. vaginatum Thell. (1926).
D Russerkommen. F tataarikumina. N russekjeks. S ryssilja.
Hemicryptophyte. Glabrous perennial, to 70 cm (occasionally taller); taproot (2–)4–5(–7) mm thick, simple or often with two main branches. Stem hollow; basal part 3–8(–10) mm thick (often thicker upwards), nearly terete or weakly sulcate, reddish or pinkish, not or slightly glaucous, mostly without remains of dead leaves; upper internodes sulcate, green or purple-tinged. Leaves 1(–2) at the base and (2–)3–4(–5) on the stem (basal leaves smaller than the lower stem leaves); sheaths yellowish green or mostly tinged with purple, in upper stem leaves very strongly inflated and reaching the leaf-blade; petiole in lower leaves (3–)6–10(–15) cm (excepting the sheath); blade 2-pinnate, triangular in outline, (4–)6–14(–18) cm (and about as wide), upper side green, lower side paler. Primary leaflets 4–6(–7) pairs; angle leaflet/rachis (30–)45–80(–90)°; longest petiolule (5–)10–30(–40) mm. Ultimate leaflets 1–2-pinnatifid, with (4–)5–8(–10) pairs of lobes; petiolule 5–17(–22) mm; blade (15–)20–40(–45) × (5–)10–15(–20) mm (length/width ratio 2–2.5); margin flat; base broadly attenuate (often oblique) to truncate. Ultimate lobes (2–)3–7(–15) × 1–3(–5) mm (length/width ratio 1–3(–6); apices acuminate or rarely acute, with pale to purple tips.
Umbels convex (sometimes semiglobose), (2–)2.5–4(–5) cm high, (2.5–)3–6(–8) cm wide; peduncle (5–)10–18(–25) cm, sulcate; rays straight, 1–2.5 cm, distinctly papillose on the adaxial side. Bracts usually absent (if present, either narrow and similar to the bractlets or short and broad). Umbellules (7–)12–15(–18); pedicels (3–)4–6(–7) mm, distinctly papillose on the adaxial side. Bractlets (5–)6–10(–12), persistent, 4–12(–25) × 0.1–0.5(–1.2) mm, rarely with 1–2 small lobes, green (no membranous border), not ciliate. Flowers not zygomorphic, (18–)20–26(–30) per umbellule; sepals absent; petals greenish white, often tinged with pink on the back (buds thereby appearing pink), 1.2–1.7 × 0.8–1 mm, entire or emarginate (apical cut to 0.1 mm); filaments 1.8–2.2 mm; anthers 0.4–0.6 mm. Fruit oblong in outline, smooth and glabrous; carpophore filiform, divided almost to the base. Mericarps 4.1–4.7 × 1.8–2.2 × 1.1–1.3 mm (length/width ratio 2–2.5); ridges in cross section high and narrow, with a narrowly rounded edge; valleculae rather narrow, each with 1–4 red-brown vittae; stylopodium convex to very broadly conical, 0.6–1.1 mm wide; style 1–1.5 mm, curved outwards and downwards. – Mid-summer to late summer.
[2n=22]

Distribution. MBor–NBor. Mostly at sea level. – N scattered along the coast from VFi Loppa to ØFi Vardø and Sør-Varanger. Possibly brought in with trade; the species has (like Alopecurus arundinaceus and Stellaria hebecalyx) a certain concentration to sites frequented in the 15th to 19th centuries by Russian traders (Pomors) from the White Sea coasts, where the species is common.
C Asia west to Austria, NE Poland, NE Norway and NW Russia, and east to E Yakutia and Xinjiang; distinctly continental in most of its range. – C. tataricum is closely related to C. chinense (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb. (E North America) and C. pacificum (S.Watson) J.M.Coult. & Rose (amphi-Pacific).

Habitat. Mostly in full sun; inner, partly decomposed drift-lines, pasture, meadow margins and abandoned grassland. Most sites are on seashore or pasture (especially drift-lines and grassland along the inner shoreline), suggesting that the species is favoured by nutrients from drift and manure, and spread by sea (although not over long distances, since the fruits will not float very long).

Variation. The leaves are normally moderately narrowly lobed (like in Anthriscus sylvestris). A plant with long and extremely narrow leaf-lobes has been collected from N VFi Nordkapp (Skarsvåg), as well from the Kola Peninsula and the White Sea area. Based on herbarium studies, Lindberg (1901) identified the narrow-leaved plant as C. cenolophioides Turcz., and it has sometimes been referred to as C. tataricum var. cenolophioides (Turcz.) Lindb.; however, Lindberg (1914) concluded that the narrow-lobed plants always grow together with ordinary C. tataricum and are probably just narrow-lobed forms (there are parallel cases in several Apiaceae species).

Similar taxaConioselinum tataricum is distinguished by  inflated sheaths, winged fruits  and narrow, glabrous bractlets from the similar Anthriscus sylvestris (which has unwinged fruits and wide, ciliate bractlets).

References To top

Lindberg, H. 1901: 1. Conioselinum cenolophioides Turcz. Medd. Fauna Fl. Fennica 27: 64–65.

Lindberg, H. 1914: Anmärkningsvärda växtfynd gjorda under en resa sommaren 1913 genom Kuolajärvi till Kajäsha vid Hvita hafvet samt vid Kandalakscha. Medd. Fauna Fl. Fennica 40: 18–28.

Pimenov, M.G., Kljuykov, E.V. & Ostroumova, T.A. 2003: A revision of Conioselinum Hoffm. (Umbelliferae) in the Old World. Willdenowia 33: 353–377.

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