Epilobium
adenocaulon
alsinifolium
anagallidifolium
brunnescens
ciliatum
collinum
davuricum
glandulosum
hirsutum
hornemannii
komarovianum
lactiflorum
laestadii
lamyi
lanceolatum
montanum
obscurum
palustre
parviflorum
pedunculare
roseum
tetragonum
Hybrids
Key to species

Chamerion
angustifolium
latifolium

Epilobium s.lat.

References
Top of family
Key to genera
Epilobium Taxa treated:
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 © Flora Nordica

by Sven Snogerup. Advisors Ilkka Kytövuori & Alf Oredsson.
(6b, 20090521)

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6. Epilobium L.

Linnaeus, Sp. Pl.: 347 (1753).
Literature. Berggren 1974, Kytövuori 1969, 1972, 1976, Oredsson & Snogerup 1975–77, Raven 1968, Skvortsov 1995, Skvortsov & Rusanovitch 1974, Åkerman 1921.
Herbaceous perennial herbs overwintering by rhizomes, resting buds (mainly on remaining stem bases) or turions (i.e. specialized short shoots with more or less thick leaves). Leaves opposite or upper ones alternate, petiolate or not.
Flowers in bracteate apical racemes or single in leaf axils, actinomorphic, 4-merous. Hypanthium short. Sepals free at apex, connate at base, erect. Petals  white to pink or purple, usually emarginate. Stamens 8, in two unequal whorls; pollen grains shed in tetrads. Stigma clavate to deeply 4-lobed. Capsule loculicidal, narrowly linear, terete or quadrangular, opening with 4 valves. Seeds numerous, 1–2 mm, papillose, longitudinally crested or almost smooth, with an apical plume of hair, in some species with a scarious neck between the body of the seed and the plume of hair.
Chromosome base-number x=18; aneuploidy. Diploids in Norden.

Taxonomy. The genus Epilobium comprises c. 170 species spread over most arctic, temperate and subtropic areas. Many of the Nordic taxa belong to critical complexes, and the number of accepted species is still not unanimous.

Epilobium palustre and E. laestadii (species 5–6). – This complex was until recently treated as a single species, E. palustre. E. palustre remains polymorphic even after the separation of E. laestadii, with variation among individuals as well as among populations and regions. The details in the variation are poorly known.
Epilobium tetragonum and E. lamyi (species 10–11). – This group, which includes also the Mediterranean E. tournefortii Michalet, has often been treated as one species, E. tetragonum, with three subspecies. The Nordic taxa in the complex are here treated at species level. They are sympatric in large parts of Norden and they often occur in mixed populations, but intermediates are rare. This is probably mainly because of a relatively high degree of autogamy. The comparatively few hybrids identified are almost fully fertile. Nevertheless, species rank is preferred here, since the taxa usually uphold their identity even in areas where both are fairly common.
Epilobium alsinifolium, E. hornemannii, E. lactiflorum and E. anagallidifolium (species 12–15). – These four species are often regarded by Nordic botanists to be closely related, but this is not really correct. E. alsinifolium has a set of chromosomes referred to as the AA genome, while the other three have the CC genome, differing from AA by two translocations (cf. Seaway & Raven 1977). This means that hybrids involving E. alsinifolium suffer considerable sterility (though E. alsinifolium × hornemannii is vegetatively strong and often persistent). The other three species form more fertile hybrids among themselves, but uphold their identity as separate species possible to distinguish by morphological characters (Kytövuori 1972). Some populations are difficult to determine, probably because of introgressive hybridization, but the four taxa are generally accepted as species.
Epilobium glandulosum, E. adenocaulon and E. ciliatum (species 16–18). – These taxa are recent introductions in Norden but well established and spreading. They belong to an American group recognized by its seeds, which have a characteristic surface (with longitudinal rows of confluent papillae) and a neck. Their turions are dense, sessile rosettes of broad, succulent leaves. Remnants of the turions are often present at the base of the flowering shoot.
Autogamy seems to be dominant, but occasional cross-fertilization sometimes gives rise to hybrids both within the group and with indigenous European species. The former are relatively fertile, and the taxonomy of the group is difficult. Some North American authors used a very narrow species concept, naming more or less local entities at species level; more recently the opposite way has usually been chosen, e.g., lumping a number of taxa (among them all those present in Norden) into one species (Hoch 1978, Wagner et al. 2007). Studies of the Nordic material have given the impression that the taxa keep their distinction in our area, and they are here treated as three species.
Hybridization. Interspecific hybridization is common in the genus, known to involve all species found in Norden except E. brunnescens (19) and E. komarovianum (20). Hybrids are often vigorous and form stands by vegetative propagation, especially in disturbed or man-made localities. Hybrids are often recognizable by being large and profusely branched with a prolonged flowering season, and by partially or entirely abortive capsules. When the capsules are well-developed, most seeds within them are usually abortive (small and thin but with well-developed hair plume) but some few in each capsule may be full-sized. The surface sculpture of such occasional seeds often give good help in the determination of hybrid parentage.
Reciprocal hybrids sometimes differ in fertility and vitality, and crossing experiments under protected greenhouse conditions may produce offspring very different from the competitive forms established and collected in nature; Åkerman (1921) and Kytövuori (1976) reported reduced vitality in some artificial hybrids (dwarfism, small flowers or sensitivity to environmental factors). Such plants would very rarely survive field conditions; one case is reported under E. adenocaulon × ciliatum.
1 Small, creeping herbs, rooting at nodes; leaves less than 1 cm long and almost as wide
2
Larger, more or less erect herbs; leaves larger and more elongated
3
 
2 Upper surface of leaves smooth; seeds minutely papillose
Upper surface of leaves rugose; seeds smooth
 
3 Stigma deeply 4-lobed
4
Stigma entire or shallowly lobed
7
 
4 Stem with long, patent hairs
5
Stem glabrous or with short, more or less appressed hairs
 
5 Leaves shortly decurrent; petals 8–20 mm
Leaves short-petiolate; petals 5–11 mm
 
6 Capsule indumentum densest on the ridges, including many 0.05–0.2 mm long glandular hairs; leaves cordate to truncate at base, usually with 15–50 teeth on each side
Capsule evenly hairy all around, glands inconspicuous, sessile or very short-stalked; leaves tapering to truncate at base, usually with 5–15 teeth on each side
 
7 Ovary/fruit ± glabrous
8
Ovary/fruit conspicuously hairy
 
8 Leaves linear (rarely lanceolate)
Leaves broadly lanceolate, ovate or elliptic
9
9 Bracts as large as lower leaves, often concealing the buds; stolons subterranean or buried in vegetation, 1–2 mm thick; petals (8–)9–12 mm
Bracts smaller than lower leaves, not concealing the buds; stolons (if present) epigeal, c. 0.5 mm thick; petals 5–8 mm
 
10 Plant less than 15 cm; young inflorescence nodding, 1–3-flowered; fruit 20–35 mm
Plant mostly over 15 cm; young inflorescence erect, 2–10-flowered; fruit 35–55 mm
 
11 Middle leaves obtuse; flowers white to light pink; seed with low obtuse papillae, seed hairs 7–9 mm
Middle leaves acute; flowers reddish or purplish pink; seed with conical papillae, seed hairs 3.5–5 mm
 
12 Some leaves with petioles 3–15 mm 9. E. roseum
Leaves sessile or almost so 13
 
13 Middle leaves lanceolate to ovate with clearly convex sides; seeds with longitudinal rows of confluent papillae 14
Middle leaves oblong to linear with almost straight sides; seeds uniformly papillose 16
 
14 Bracts almost as large as the middle leaves; fruit with patent glandular hairs but few or no appressed eglandular ones; inflorescence usually unbranched 16. E. glandulosum
Bracts much smaller than the middle leaves; fruit with numerous appressed eglandular hairs (in addition to the patent glandular hairs); inflorescence richly branched (in large specimens) 15
 
15 Usually branched only above; turions always present in autumn; flowers usually purplish pink; pedicels less than 10 mm  17. E. adenocaulon
Usually branched from the base; turions often lacking; flowers white or whitish pink; some fruiting pedicels mostly 10–35 mm 18. E. ciliatum
 
16 Sepals, ovaries and pedicels with appressed eglandular hairs but no or very few short, patent glands (at base of sepals only) 17
Sepals, ovaries and pedicels with numerous short, patent glandular hairs (in addition to appressed eglandular hairs) 19
 
17 A few glandular hairs at base of sepals; stolons formed towards the end of the season 8. E. obscurum
Glandular hairs entirely absent; stolons not formed 18
 
18 Upper leaves densely hairy on midrib beneath 11. E. lamyi
Upper leaves glabrous beneath 10. E. tetragonum
 
19 Stem with a basal leaf rosette; stolons not formed;  ovary fairly sparsely hairy mainly from glandular hairs, ripening fruits ± glabrous 7. E. davuricum
Stem without a basal leaf rosette at anthesis; long, thin stolons formed towards the end of the season; ovary and fruit fairly densely hairy from glandular and eglandular hairs 20
 
20 Stem internodes almost equal; pedicel usually shorter than fruit; midvein of leaves usually hairy underneath  5. E. palustre
Upper stem internodes elongated; pedicel often much longer than fruit; midvein of leaves ± glabrous underneath 6. E. laestadii

1. Epilobium hirsutum L.    Map   Ill.

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 347 (1753). – Type: Linnaean Herbarium 486.3 (LINN) lectotype, sel. by Brenan in Turrill & Milne-Redhead, Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Onagraceae: 2 (1953).
D Lådden Dueurt. F karvahorsma N stormjølke. S rosendunört.
Literature. Halvorsen & Grøstad 2003.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by a persistent 5–50 cm long, branching rhizome mostly 2–4 mm thick and by turions formed at rhizome ends in autumn as rosettes of short, fleshy, oblong leaves. Shoots (30–)70–150(–180) cm, erect, usually richly branched in middle and upper part. Stem near the base 4–10 mm thick, terete, with some short raised lines below the leaves, densely hairy with numerous long, patent, slightly crispate hairs and short glandular ones, old stem part becoming subglabrous. Leaves all opposite or a few upper ones alternate; basal leaves spathulate to lanceolate, soon withering; middle ones (40–)60–120(–150) × (10–)15–30(–40) mm, narrowly lanceolate, semiamplexicaul with margins decurrent on the stem for up to 10 mm, acute, irregularly serrate, moderately to densely hairy.
Inflorescences up to 25(-50)-flowered racemes at branch ends and apex; bracts large; fruiting pedicels (6–)10–15(–20) mm. Buds mucronate. Sepals 8–13 mm. Petals (10–)15–22 mm, slightly notched, purplish-red or rarely pinkish-purple. Stamens very unequal (short filaments about half as long as the long ones). Style longer than the long stamens. Stigma conspicuously 4-lobed with lobes up to 5 mm. Capsule (60–)75–90 mm; indumentum of glandular hairs only or mixed glandular and eglandular. Seeds 1.0–1.3 × 0.5–0.6 mm, with c. 30 papillose longitudinal ridges; neck inconspicuous; seed hairs 8–12 mm. – Summer to early autumn.
2n=36 (S Sk 4). – [2n=36; naturally occurring haploids and triploids 18, 54]

Distribution. Nem–BNem(–MBor). – D common in all provinces. N a recent introduction (with ballast, lime and garden plants), first recorded in the late 1900’s but mainly in the 1990’s or later; as yet established only in Te Kragerø, AA Tvedestrand and Ro Randaberg. S possibly indigenous in parts of Sk, in BhG Göteborg area and in central Vg, elsewhere first recorded in the late 19th century (often as a garden escape) but mainly spread from c. 1950 onwards and still increasing; now common in Sk (except the northernmost part) and fairly common in coastal and lowland areas north to central BhG, Vg, Nrk and Upl, scattered to rare and sometimes casual in upland areas and further north (as well as in Gtl); northernmost records Hls Alfta 2007, Forsa 1951 and Nb Piteå 2007 (with timber from the Baltic states). F a recent incomer; first records V Turku 1886, EK Hamina 1902 and U Helsinki 1920, first inland record ES Valkeala 1948; rapidly spreading in the southern coastal provinces and southern parts of EH and ES; St Köyliö and Säkylä, PH Laukaa and KP Raahe.
Temperate parts of Europe and Africa, western Asia; cosmopolitan as a casual, naturalized in N America.
Habitat. Moist to permanently wet, nutrient-rich soil; fairly light-demanding and slightly calciphilous. Favoured by manuring, nitrogen pollution and overgrowth and very competitive in poorly managed or disused wetlands, but sensitive to mowing and grazing. Eutrophic freshwater shores, wet meadows, ditches, marlpits, at farms (especially at pools and dunghills), more rarely on ruderal ground.
Biology. Largely outcrossing. The species is protandrous; when receptive the stigma is held well above the anthers. Propagating efficiently by its branching and far-creeping rhizome and often forming large stands.
Hybridization. Epilobium hirsutum has formed hybrids with E. adenocaulon (17), E. glandulosum (16), E. lamyi (11), E. montanum (3), E. obscurum (8), E. palustre (5), E. parviflorum (2), E. roseum (9) and E. tetragonum (10).

2. Epilobium parviflorum Schreb.    Map   Ill.

Schreber, Spic. Fl. Lips.: 146 [155] (1771). – Described from Germany (Leipzig area).
D Dunet Dueurt. F nukkahorsma. N dunmjølke. S luddunört.
Literature. Grøstad 2002.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by turion-like or elongated rosettes of broadly spathulate to lanceolate leaves formed on 0–5 cm long epigeal stolons. Shoots (15–)35–90(–120) cm, erect (or in very wet situations ascending with creeping, rooting base), simple or branched in upper part, becoming more branched in autumn; indumentum usually dense, mainly of long, patent, more or less crispate hairs, upper part of stem also with smaller glandular hairs (very rarely plant ± glabrous). Stem terete or subterete. Leaves opposite (most of them), not amplexicaul and not with decurrent margins; petiole often very short but rarely up to 10 mm; basal leaves small, spathulate to obovate, conspicuously petiolate; middle cauline leaves (20–)40–120 × (7–)10–20(–30) mm, usually narrowly ovate, acute to apiculate, variously serrate.
Inflorescence of one or mostly several up to 25-flowered racemes; fruiting pedicels (7–)12–15(–25) mm. Buds obtuse with a small mucro. Sepals (3.5–)5–7 mm. Petals (5–)7–9(–11) mm, purplish-pink to reddish-violet. Stamens unequal (short filaments about 2/3 as long as the long ones). Style about equalling the long stamens. Stigma 4-lobed. Capsule (40–)50–60(–75) mm, usually densely hairy, rarely subglabrous. Seeds 0.9–1.2 × 0.45–0.55 mm, densely and rather irregularly papillose, witthout a neck; seed hairs (5–)6–7(–8) mm. – Summer to early autumn.
2n=36 (S Sk ). – [2n=36]

Distribution. Nem–BNem. – Regarded as indigenous at least along the coast north to southern N and F. – D common in most areas, but absent from parts of VJy. N Ak Oslo 1850’s and 2005, Vestby 1884–1926 and Vf Horten (several records 1906–2002), Larvik 2005 (nursery garden) and Sandefjord 2000; probably introduced with ballast in Øf Hvaler 1933, Kragerø 1879 and Moss 1921, 1927. S common in lowland Sk and in Öl, fairly common in southern coastal Hl, southwestern Bl, Gtl, limestone areas in Vg, lowland Ög and eastern Upl, elsewhere fairly rare to rare north to Dls Tisselskog, Vsm Viker and Gst Gävle and Valbo; casual in Mpd at least Timrå c. 1900. F fairly common and possibly native in A and in V Lohja (brookside, field ditches); alien in V Nauvo (established in field ditches), U Helsinki 1940 (with cork from Morocco). – Also recorded from N Vf Kristiansand (Grøstad 2002) and S Vrm Karlstad (Almquist 1963; casual), but no vouchers have been seen.
N Africa, Europe, W and SW Asia, introduced elsewhere.
Habitat. Moist, nutrient-rich soil, especially in bare (e.g. cattle-trampled) patches; light-demanding and clearly calciphilous. Sensitive to overgrowth as well as to heavy grazing. Banks of streams, at ponds and eutrophic lakes, at wells and in seepage areas in rich fens; also in man-made habitats like ditches, road and railway banks, disused fields, gravel-pits and earth-heaps; rarely as a field or garden weed. Possibly decreasing due to drainage and overgrowth; a decline has been reported from areas with sparse occurrence both in N and S.
Biology. Epilobium parviflorum often forms clones by the proliferation of several turions from each former years stem.
Variation. The indumentum varies strongly between individuals and populations, from densely villous to sparsely hairy or rarely subglabrous, the hairs being curled or mostly straight, patent.
Hybridization. Epilobium parviflorum has formed hybrids with E. adenocaulon (17), E. glandulosum (16), E. hirsutum (1), E. lamyi (11), E. montanum (3), E. obscurum (8), E. palustre (5), E. roseum (9), and E. tetragonum (10).

3. Epilobium montanum L.    Map   Ill.

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 348 (1753). – Type: Linnaean Herbarium 486.5 (LINN) lectotype, sel. by Raven, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 24: 191 (1962).
D Glat Dueurt. Fa fjalladúnurt. F lehtohorsma. I runnadúnurt. N krattmjølke. S bergdunört.
Hemicryptophyte. Shoots 20–60(–90) cm, erect, simple or branched above, small branches present in most leaf axils; stolons up to 10 mm long, thick, reddish, epi- or hypogeal. Turions epigeal, dense rosettes of 10–15 fleshy, broadly obovate, 4–10 mm long leaves, directly from the basal internodes or on short stolons. Stems terete, sparsely hairy below, moderately to densely above, hairs in upper part mainly glandular. Leaves opposite (most of them), usually not semiamplexicaul, not decurrent; petiole short. Basal leaves small, spathulate to lanceolate or elliptic. Middle cauline leaves 20–60(–90) x 10–30(–45) mm, ovate, acute, cordate to truncate at base, serrate with 15–40 or in small specimens often only c. 10 teeth on each side.
Inflorescence of one or in tall specimens several up to 20 flowered racemes; lower bracts like the cauline leaves; fruiting pedicels (5–)10–15(20) mm. Buds obtuse with a small mucro. Sepals 5–7.5 mm. Petals (7–)9–12(–15) mm, reddish to purplish pink or rarely white. Stamens slightly unequal (short filaments c. ¾ as long as the longest ones). Style about equalling the long stamens. Stigma 4-lobed, lobes c. 2 mm. Capsule (40–)60–70(–80) mm; indumentum dense on the ridges, sparser in the furrows, with mixed eglandular and many up to 0.3 mm long glandular hairs. Seeds 1.2–1.3 × 0.4–0.5 mm, striate with rows of small papillae, without a neck; seed hairs 7.5–10 mm. – Summer to early autumn.
2n=36 (S Sk, F V). – [2n=36; naturally ocurring haploids 18]
Distribution. Nem–MBor[–NBor]. Alt. 1020 m (N AA Bykle). – D common throughout but with lower frequency in western Jylland. N common north to NNo, fairly rare in VFi; ØFi Sør-Varanger. S common north to central Vrm, southern and eastern Dlr and along the coast to central and eastern Mpd and Ång; fairly rare further north and inland, rare in the mountains to PL Arjeplog (Ardnapakte, Staburknösen) and LL Gällivare (Jollumepakte and Präskajaurga) and Kvikkjokk (Lastak). F indigenous north to the northern boundaries of EP, PH, PS and PK, scattered in KP, Kn and OP; further north rare and at least mainly casual. Fa indigenous; fairly rare but widespread. I IVe Reykjavík 1976, 1980.
Europe except the arctic parts, W, N and NE Asia.
Habitat. Dry to fairly moist, moderately nutrient-rich soil, mainly in bare patches or in sparse vegetation; tolerant of moderate shade. Deciduous woodland, especially at edges, in glades and along brooks, among and on boulders in ravines; scree and ledges in rock-faces (especially in the mountains and in the far north); alvar karst (S Öl). Strongly hemerophilous and commonest in man-made habitats: clear-fellings, roadsides and all kinds of ruderal ground; frequent in urban areas in hedges, parks, plantations and in cracks in pavement; also frequent as a garden weed.
Biology. Overwintering by epigeal turions formed in autumn.
Variation. A variant of Epilobium montanum with entire leaves has been cultivated as a curiosity, mainly in botanical gardens; Nordic material has been seen from S Sk Lund, Klm Kalmar, Upl Uppsala and F U Helsinki. It has been described as E. hypericifolium Tausch, but artificial hybrids between “E. hypericifolium” and ordinary E. montanum, cultivated in Jena, proved to be fully seed and pollen fertile.
Similar taxa. Specimens of Epilobium montanum growing in dry ruderal sites are often small, unbranched, with several nodes below the inflorescence and leaves with few teeth. They are best distinguished from E. collinum (4) by the indumentum of the inflorescence; see the latter for differential characters.
Hybridization. Epilobium montanum has formed hybrids with E. adenocaulon (17), E. ciliatum (18), E. collinum (4), E. glandulosum (16), E. hirsutum (1), E. lactiflorum (15), E. lamyi (11), E. obscurum (8), E. palustre (5), E. parviflorum (2) and E. roseum (9). – Hybridization with E. tetragonum has not been verified.

4. Epilobium collinum C.C. Gmel.    Map   Ill.

Gmelin, Fl. Bad. 4: 265 (1826). – Described from Germany (Baden).
F mäkihorsma. I klappadúnurt. N bergmjølke. S backdunört.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by epigeal turions formed in the autumn at the stem base or on up to 10 mm long reddish stolons as up to 20 mm long rosettes of 10–15 short, broadly obovate, fleshy leaves. Shoots (5–)15–35(–60) cm, erect, usually simple with only stunted branches in the leaf axils, large specimens sometimes densely branched; shoots often appearing in dense groups (clones) by the proliferation of turions from several former years. Stem terete, 0.5–3 mm thick, densely hairy with appressed eglandular and usually few small glandular hairs. Leaves opposite (most of them), usually appearing in 6–15 pairs below the top inflorescence, not decurrent; petiole short. Basal leaves small, spathulate to elliptical. Middle and upper cauline leaves 10–30(–40) × 5–12(–22) mm, ovate to lanceolate, abruptly tapering to truncate at base, obtuse to acute, regularly serrate with 6–12 (or on large leaves up to 20) more irregular teeth on each side, sparsely hairy mainly on midrib and margin.
Inflorescence usually simple, 1–6(–12)-flowered, but in large specimens one or two times branched and up to c. 100-flowered; bracts smaller and narrower than the cauline leaves; fruiting pedicels (3–)6–10(–20) mm. Buds with a broad conical tip, not mucronate. Sepals 3–6 mm. Petals (5–)6–7.5(–9) mm, notched to 1–1.5 mm, reddish to purplish pink, rarely whitish, often with conspicuous darker lines. Stamens moderately unequal (short filaments c. ¾ as long as the long ones). Style shorter than to equalling the long stamens. Stigma conspicuously 4-lobed with lobes up to 2 mm. Capsule (30–)40–50(–60) mm; indumentum dense and even, mainly of appressed eglandular hairs, with sparse sessile or short-stalked glands mainly in the furrows (rarely more frequent on much of the capsule). Seeds 0.9–1.1(–1.2) × 0.4–0.5 mm, with many longitudinal rows of small papillae, without a neck; seed hairs 5.5–7.5 mm. – Summer to early autumn.
2n=36 (S BhG). – [2n=36; naturally ocurring haploids 18]

Distribution. Nem–MBor[–LAlp]. Alt. 1220 m (N Bu Ål). – N common or fairly common north to VFi Måsøy. S on the whole fairly common north to Vrm, Vsm and in the coastal provinces to Ång, but frequency very uneven (almost absent in southern Sk, rare in Öl, Gtl, coastal and easternmost Hl, southwestern SmI, upland Vg, central Ög and central Nrk). Further north mainly in the mountains north to TL Abisko area. F common to fairly common in the southern coastal and eastern inland provinces north to the northern parts of PH, PS and PK; rare in EP, KP, Kn and InL Utsjoki; neither clearly native nor established in OP; casual in KiL Muonuio 1942. I common to fairly common in coastal IAu, ISu, IVe and southwestern INv, fairly rare in INo, and rare in IMi. – Also recorded from ØFi Sør-Varanger (Lid & Lid 2005), but no specimens have been seen.
A European endemic, occurring in most of Europe except the British Isles, the Netherlands, the Faroe Islands and Denmark.
Habitat. In sun or light shade on dry to slightly moist ground; not very nutrient-demanding but avoiding strongly acidic substrates. Mainly on rocky or stony ground: rock pavement, ledges and cracks in rock-faces, scree slopes, pebbly seashores. In the south clearly hemerophilous, and in some areas seen only or mainly in man-made habitats: quarries, road cuttings, roadsides, slag heaps, gravel-pits, railway areas and on stone-fences; rare as a garden weed.
Variation. Upper leaves with up to 25 irregular, long and sharp teeth have been found in several places as S Upl Bladåker and Djurö (Runmarö). Specimens with many glandular hairs are more common in N and middle to northern S. A glabrous form was found in S Vg Töllsjö 1967.
Similar species. Epilobium collinum may be confusingly similar to a small E. montanum. The best diagnostic character is the indumentum of the fruit. In E. collinum the capsule is uniformly hairy all around, with appressed eglandular hairs; glands (if present) are mostly invisible at low magnification, since they are sessile or subsessile and more or less hidden by the appressed hairs. In E. montanum the hairs are arranged in rows along the ridges of the capsule, and there are long glandular hairs among them.
Hybridization. Epilobium collinum has formed hybrids with E. ciliatum (18), E. lamyi (11), E. montanum (3), E. obscurum (8), E. palustre (5) and E. roseum (9).

5. Epilobium palustre L.    Map   Ill.

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 348 (1753). – Type: Linnaean Herbarium 486.7 (LINN) lectotype, sel. by Jonsell & Jarvis, Nordic J. Bot. 22: 83 (2002).
D Kær-Dueurt. F suohorsma. Fa eingjardúnurt. I mýradúnurt. N myrmjølke. S kärrdunört.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by compact, subglobose turions 5–10 mm, formed in autumn at the ends of long, filiform epi- or hypogeal stolons present also at flowering time. Shoots 10–40(–80) cm, erect, usually simple or branched above only. Stem terete, sparsely hairy below, more densely above, hairs evenly spaced or densest in broad rows, mixed appressed eglandular and erect glandular. Leaves opposite (most of them), only bracts alternate. Basal leaves small, ovate to elliptical. Middle leaves usually 20–40 × 5–10 mm, almost linear to narrowly lanceolate, usually obtuse, entire or subentire.
Inflorescence usually a simple, (1–)3–10-flowered raceme, but in large or old specimens variously branched and up to 50-flowered; fruiting pedicels (5–)15–40 mm, erect to erecto-patent. Buds obtuse. Sepals 3–6.5 mm. Petals 5–8.5(–10) mm, notched, white or usually pink to pinkish-violet (in other areas usually light). Stamens unequal (short filaments about 2/3 as long as the longest ones). Style equalling or longer than the long stamens. Stigma clavate. Capsule (30–)50–60(–75) mm, moderately to densely hairy with many glandular hairs. Seeds 1.25–1.8(–2.1) × 0.4–0.55 mm; neck 0.1–0.25 mm; seed hairs 7.5–11 mm. – Summer to early autumn.
2n=36 (D Sjæ). – [2n=36]
Distribution. Nem–LAlp. Alt. c. 1380 m (N Op Lom). – Common to fairly common in most of mainland Norden but rarer in alpine areas. Fa common throughout. I fairly rare in IMi, elsewhere common.
Circumboreal.
Habitat. On wet or moist and usually nutrient-poor peat or mineral soil, usually in full sun but tolerant of moderate shade; thriving well in both base-poor and base-rich habitats. Wet grassland, stream banks, lake shores, wet forest, springs, all kinds of fen but particularly in Sphagnum on quagmires, and also ± wet disturbed ground like ditches, depressions in clear-felled areas, lowered lakes and moist abandoned fields (sometimes in profusion), but only rarely on ruderal ground.
Biology. Epilobium palustre propagates effectively within a wetland by the long, thin stolons. The easily detached turions may also become transported by various agents. The species has a far greater seed-producing capacity than the related E. davuricum (7) since the capsules are longer and more numerous. The seeds, which have thinner and more numerous hairs, are also clearly better adapted to wind dispersal.
Variation. Tall forms with broad and dentate leaves are especially common in nutrient-rich localities of the southern provinces, but similar plants are found in western coastal areas of Norway. In I occurs at several places a lowgrown form propagating by thin runners developing into stems in their first year. Small and narrow-leaved forms occur throughout Norden but dominate in the northernmost parts. Almost glabrous individuals have been collected at F SoL Pelkosenniemi.
An extreme variant with a clearly northern distribution has been referred to as var. lapponicum Hausskn. (Kytövuori 1980, Hämet-Ahti et al. 2005; the name appears to be illegitimate). This variant has been found in F OP, PeP, Ks, KiL, SoL, EnL and InL, and similar or identical plants are known from S Hrj, Jmt, Mpd, Ång, Nb, ÅsL, PL, LL and TL; it has often been mistaken for E. laestadii.
E. palustre var. lapponicum” may be described as follows: 10–20 cm, slender, unbranched; lower internodes short (c. 5 mm). Leaves almost erect, short and narrow, their sides parallel almost to the obtuse apex, upper ones with stomata also on the upper side. Flowers few (often only one); corolla 6–8 mm, white or pale reddish. Seeds fairly large, almost smooth, with a long neck.
By contrast, ordinary E. palustre is 10–70 cm, unbranched or sparsely branched; lower internodes often rather long. Leaves erectopatent to patent, elongated, narrowly ovate, attenuate in their distal third, upper ones with stomata only on the lower side. Flowers usually numerous; corolla 5–7 mm, purple to pale red or sometimes white. Seeds somewhat smaller, clearly papillose, with a short neck.
Plants matching the description of “var. lapponicum“ mostly occur in very wet, eutrophic mire vegetation, but only rarely in sites heavily influenced by man. They deserve further study, and possibly recognition as a separate taxon.
Similar taxa. Epilobium palustre has been confused with E. laestadii (6), E. davuricum (7) and E. obscurum (8); for differential characters see the latter three.
Hybridization. Epilobium palustre has formed hybrids with E. adenocaulon (17), E. alsinifolium (13), E. anagallidifolium (12), E. ciliatum (18), E. collinum (4), E. davuricum (7), E. glandulosum (16), E. hirsutum (1), E. hornemannii (14), E. lactiflorum (15), E. laestadii (6), E. lamyi (11), E. montanum (3), E. obscurum (8), E. parviflorum (2), E. roseum (9), and E. tetragonum (10).

6. Epilobium laestadii Kytöv.    Map   Ill.

Kytövuori, Ann. Bot. Fenn. 16: 193 (1979). – Type: Finland, Kuusamo, Vuotunki, Liittovaara, Lohilampi 1973, I. Kytövuori 3215 (H) holotype.
D Laplands-Dueurt. F turjanhorsma. N lappmjølke. S lappdunört.
Literature. Kytövuori 1979.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by fleshy rosettes and runners, specialized turions, when at all formed, consisting of two fleshy, c. 2 mm long leaves enclosing a very small bud, at the ends of long filiform hypogeal to epigeal stolons present also at anthesis. Shoots 10–20(–30) cm, erect, simple; lower internodes very short, upper conspicuously longer and mostly much longer than the corresponding leaves. Stems terete or rounded quadrangular, glabrous or sparsely hairy, hairs when present concentrated in broad bands, almost exclusively eglandular. Leaves few, lower ones opposite, some upper ones and the bracts alternate. Middle leaves mostly 10–20 × 2–4 mm, all entire or sparsely serrulate, glabrous or with a few hairs on upper surface, margin and midvein below.
Inflorescence simple, few-flowered; bracts and pedicels often reddish, pedicels 35–60 mm (pedicel in fruit usually conspicuously longer than the fruit and 3–5 times as long as the bract). Buds obtuse; flowers often not fully opening. Sepals 2–4.5 mm. Petals 3.5–5 mm, white to pale pink. Stamens with filaments only slightly different in length; anthers opening before anthesis. Style shorter than to equalling the long stamens. Stigma capitate. Capsule 35–50 mm, densely hairy with very few glandular hairs. Seeds 1.3–1.9 × 0.35–0.55 mm, neck 0.1–0.15 mm; seed hairs 4–7 mm. – Summer to early autumn.
Distribution. MBor–NBor. – The distribution is poorly known, especially in N and S. N known from VFi Alta, Kautokeino, Måsøy and Porsanger and ØFi Nesseby. S known from Ång at least Fjällsjö and Tåsjö, Jmt at least Rödön, Nb at least Pajala, and TL Jukkasjärvi (Abisko) and Karesuando.. F recorded from c. 35 localities in the north; most frequent in Ks Kuusamo (especially in Oulanka national park and its vicinity) , southermost occurrence in Kn Puolanka. – Also reported from N Op Dovre (Lid & Lid 2005; identification uncertain).
Outside Norden only known from Russian E Kuusamo (Paanajärvi).
Habitat. Almost exclusively in moss carpets in more or less base-rich fens with a sparse and low field layer, often around springs or in seepage areas. Slightly favoured by disturbance; often growing along tracks or paths, or (temporarily) establishing on newly exposed peat, e.g. at or in ditches.
Biology. In Epilobium laestadii the anthers open early, most often before the opening of the flower, and as the anthers envelop the stigma, pollination can occur immediately.In E. davuricum the flowers open before the anthers, and the stamens (which are rather short) spread out when the flower is open.
Similar species. Epilobium laestadii may sometimes be difficult to distinguish from small specimens of E. palustre (especially “var. lapponicum”), but the long upper internodes and pedicels and the scarcity of hairs on the leaves are diagnostic. The eglandular hairs on pedicels, ovaries and fruits are more or less appressed in E. laestadii, and there are very few glandular hairs (E. palustre has a thicker hair cover, the eglandular hairs are almost patent basally and then fairly strongly curved, and the glandular hairs are usually more numerous).
E. laestadii may also be confused with E. davuricum, but that species lacks stolons and has almost glabrous capsules (young ones have a few hairs, all or most of them glandular).
Hybridization. Epilobium laestadii forms hybrids with E. palustre (5); hybrids with E. davuricum (7) have been reported, but not evaluated.

7. Epilobium davuricum Fisch. ex Hornem.    Map   Ill.

Hornemann, Suppl. Hort. Bot. Hafn.: 44 (1819). – Described from Siberian material cultivated in København.
D Sibirisk Dueurt. F vuorolehtihorsma. N linmjølke. S smaldunört.
Literature. Kytövuori 1969.
Hemicryptophyte without rhizome, overwintering by turions consisting of short-leaved rosettes developing in the axils of basal leaves, rarely on stolons prolonged up to 3 cm. Shoots (7–)15–30(–40) cm, usually simple and without axillary short branches; middle and upper internodes usually longer than the leaves; often several shoots close together because of proliferation of turions from several former years. Stem 0.5–1.5 mm thick, terete, in middle and upper part with two raised lines below the midribs of leaves, in basal part also two below the margins, sparsely to moderately hairy all around or more densely on the ridges, hairs 0.15–0.3 mm, longer ones curved, eglandular, short ones patent and at least partly glandular. Leaves short-petiolate; basal ones forming a dense rosette except in some first year specimens, lower cauline ones opposite, middle and upper ones usually alternate. Basal leaves narrowly obovate to elliptical or ovate, 5–15 mm, glabrous. Cauline leaves (5–)10–25(–40) × 1–3 mm, lanceolate, narrowly lanceolate or linear, obtuse, subentire or with few, short and often irregular teeth; indumentum sparse, denser on midribs and margins.
Inflorescence simple or with a few short branches, mostly 1–7-flowered; bracts shorter and narrower than the stem leaves, often subsessile, often placed up to 5(–10) mm up on the pedicel; pedicels in fruit (10–)15–30(–40) mm. Buds broadly ellipsoidal to spheroidal, obtuse to acutish Sepals 3–5 mm, connate for 0.9–1.8 mm, lanceolate, obtuse, green or often reddish green, subglabrous or sparsely hairy especially in the basal part, upper margin glandular, slightly fringed, reddish. Petals (3.2–)4–5(–7.5) mm, notched to 0.5–1 mm, white or rarely pinkish white. Stamens unequal (short filaments about 2/3 as long as the longest ones). Style about equalling the long stamens. Stigma capitate. Capsule 30–45(–50) mm, as young with sparse to moderate indumentum mainly of glandular hairs, as ripe ± glabrous. Seeds 1.3–1.5(–1.7) × 0.5–0.6 mm, narrowly obovoidal, densely covered with c. 0.01 mm papillae in inconspicuous rows; neck 0.15–0.3 mm; seed hairs 7.5–11 mm. – Summer
2n=36 (N ST). – [2n=36]
Distribution. [SBor–]MBor–LAlp. 1400 m (N Op Lom). – Mainly a species of boreal forest. N fairly common south to Te Vinje and Ho Ullensvang, Bu Kongsberg and (at least formerly) Ak Oslo; from MR Smøla northwards also along the coast. S widespread in the northern inland, rarer and mainly in the western parts of the coastal provinces, south to Hls Los and central Dlr. F common in northwestern EnL and Ks Kuusamo, elsewhere in the north scattered south to Kn and OP Kiiminki, Muhos (extinct) and Pudasjärvi; isolated in KP Kälviä and PK Juuka.
Circumpolar.
Habitat. Wet places, in moss carpets or on bare fine-grained mineral soil, often in slight to moderate shade; calciphilous. Sloping fens and springs, margins of rich fens, forested slopes with seepage, outwash from brooklets, frost upheaval patches and snowbeds (in the mountains); secondarily on mineral soil in ditches.
Biology. Epilobium davuricum lacks the prolonged runners of related species; at most it forms small, almost caespitose clones. Even for its dispersal within a locality it is therefore dependent on reproduction by seed. The number of seeds per plant is much lower than in related species since the capsules are shorter and fewer, and the seeds are less suited for wind dispersal than those of E. palustre (5), having fewer and more rigid hairs. The flowers of E. davuricum open before the anthers, and the stamens (which are rather short) spread out when the flower is open.
Similar species. Epilobium davuricum has often been misidentified as E. palustre or E. laestadii but differs from both in having a thin capsule indumentum almost exclusively of glandular hairs. Young plants may usually also be identified by their conspicuous leaf rosettes.
Hybridization. Epilobium davuricum hybrids are known with E. lactiflorum (15) and E. palustre (5).

8. Epilobium obscurum Schreb.    Map   Ill.

Schreber, Spic. Fl. Lips.: 147 [155] (1771). – Described from Germany (Leipzig area).
D Ris-Dueurt. F tummahorsma. N mørkmjølke. S mörk dunört.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by persistent subterranean and epigeal stolons becoming up to 25 cm long in autumn with widely spaced or apically aggregated pairs of leaves with petiole up to 10 mm and spathulate to elliptic lamina 4–20 mm. Shoots 30–70(–100) cm, erect, at first branched only apically, later developing branches from the base, with small branches in most leaf axils. Stem terete with 4–6 raised lines or rarely low wings, subglabrous to sparsely hairy below, more densely above, most hairs appressed, eglandular, 0.1–0.25 mm, more densely placed along the lines. Leaves opposite (most of them), lower ones shortly petiolate, upper ones sessile, some shortly decurrent. Basal leaves small, obovate, lanceolate or narrowly ovate and subentire, usually subglabrous. Middle leaves (20–)40–65(–80) × 8–15(–25) mm, narrowly ovate to lanceolate, acute or obtuse, irregularly serrate with few and small teeth, usually subglabrous. Upper leaves sparsely hairy especially on margins and veins.
Inflorescences one or in large specimens several, usually 5–10-flowered racemes; bracts smaller, narrower and more hairy than lower leaves; fruiting pedicels (5–)10–20(–25) mm. Buds acute without a mucro. Sepals 3.5–5(7.5) mm, connate for 1–1.5 mm, lanceolate, acute to obtuse, usually reddish especially on the margins, densely hairy with eglandular hairs and a few short, erect glandular ones near the base. Petals 5.5–7(–9) mm, usually dark pinkish-purple, rarely lighter. Stamens conspicuously unequal (short filaments about half as long as the longest ones). Style shorter than the long stamens. Stigma capitate. Capsule 40–55(–65) mm; indumentum dense, of appressed eglandular hairs, glandular hairs mostly few and aggregated in apical part. Seeds 0.85–0.95 × 0.4–0.5 mm, obovoidal, with small papillae arranged in dense and conspicuous rows, without a neck; seed hairs 5–7 mm. – Late spring to early autumn.
[2n=36]
Distribution. Nem–BNem. – Indigenous. D fairly common throughout, most frequent in Jylland. N probably native in Øf at least Halden, Vf Borre and in scattered localities from AA to Ro and Ho, but vanishing; recent records mainly as a weed in garden nurseries in the same areas and in He Ringsaker 2001. S fairly common in upland Sk, in Bl, southern Hl, SmI, Klm and (at least formerly) in BhG, elsewhere fairly rare north to southern Vrm Nyed and Karlskoga, Nrk and southeastern Upl (last seen in Alsike 1938), in the north declining due to drainage and overgrowth, in the south locally also due to hybridization with the introduced E. adenocaulon. F probably indigenous in V Lohja; apparently archaeophytic in V Korppoo and Nauvo; elsewhere casual, found in A Mariehamn 1943, Sund 1906, V several localities, U Helsinki (garden centre), EP Kristiinankaupunki 1946 (wartime incomer from Germany).
Temperate Europe, Madeira, N Africa, SW Asia, the Caucasus.
Habitat. Moist to wet, fairly base-poor but more or less nutrient-rich soil, especially in bare (e.g. cattle-trampled) patches; light-demanding and sensitive to overgrowth. Mainly at springs and seepage areas in grazed, species-rich grassland; secondarily in ditches. Also a weed in gardens and nurseries, but rarely found on ruderal ground.
Variation. The amount of glandular hairs and subsessile glands is somewhat variable. In a great majority of specimens they are concentrated on the base of calyx and easily visible. But sometimes they are short and few, often in combination with very dense eglandular hairiness. Very rarely both base of calyx and capsules are densely glandular-hairy. A subglabrous form with only few and subsessile glands has been collected in S Sk Stenshuvud.
Similar taxa. Epilobium obscurum may be taken for a large E. palustre, but has smaller seeds without a neck, few glandular hairs, usually darker flowers and thicker stolons (turions not formed, or very lax) . A a rule, it is easily distinguished from E. lamyi (11) and E. tetragonum (10) by the presence of at least some glandular hairs on sepals and fruit.
Hybridization. Hybrids of Epilobium obscurum are known with E. adenocaulon (17), E. ciliatum (18), E. collinum (4), E. glandulosum (16), E. hirsutum (1), E. lamyi (11), E. montanum (3), E. palustre (5), E. parviflorum (2), and E. roseum (9).

9. Epilobium roseum Schreb.    Map   Ill.

Schreber, Spic. Fl. Lips.: 147 [155] (1771). – Described from Germany (Leipzig area).
D Rosen-Dueurt. F rusohorsma. N greinmjølke. S grendunört.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by fleshy turions formed on 0–5 mm long stolons or at stem bases in autumn as dense rosettes of orbicular to broadly ovate, 8–12 mm long leaves. Shoots (20–)30–60(–90) cm, erect, branched from the middle or rarely from the base. Stem 1–6 mm thick, terete, with 2–4 raised lines, subglabrous below, moderately to densely hairy above with appressed eglandular and short glandular hairs. Leaves usually opposite (some upper ones alternate); petioles 3–12(–15) mm long. Basal leaves small, lanceolate, subglabrous. Middle leaves (25–)35–70(–100) x 10–25(–40) mm, lanceolate, acute, serrate with many small teeth, sparsely to moderately hairy like the stem.
Inflorescences of one or mostly several up to 15-flowered racemes; first bracts like middle leaves, upper ones smaller with shorter petioles; fruiting pedicels 5–15(–20) mm. Buds acute, with a 0.3–0.4 mm mucro. Sepals 4–6 mm, connate to c. 1 mm, lanceolate, apiculate, pure green or reddish, densely hairy. Petals 4.5–7 mm, light pink to purplish-pink or pinkish white, usually with darker stripes. Stamens unequal (short filaments 2/3–3/4 as long as the longest ones). Style about equalling the short stamens. Stigma capitate. Capsule 40–55(–65) mm; indumentum moderate to dense, hairs like those of the stem. Seeds 1–1.1 × 0.45–0.6 mm, with many dense rows of short but distinct papillae, without a neck; seed hairs 8–9 mm. – Summer to early autumn.
2n=36 (S Sk). – [2n=36]
Distribution. Nem–BNem. – D fairly common in eastern Jylland and the islands, scattered in NJy, rare in VJy and the western parts of SJy. N fairly common in the southeast; AA Risør 1894, VA at least Kristiansand; scattered in coastal Ro and Ho; MR Kristiansund 1911S indigenous in the south, probably a recent incomer in the north and in Gtl; common in lowland Sk, fairly common in coastal Bl, western Öl (from Borgholm southwards), coastal Hl, in BhG and SmI Jönköping area; elsewhere scattered north to Nrk, southeastern Vsm and Upl; Dls Dalskog 1911, Skållerud 1930 and Ödskölt 1900, Vrm Kristinehamn 1857, 1906, Dlr at least Leksand 1911 and Ludvika 1951–64, Gst Gävle and Nb Piteå 1916 (ballast). F a recent incomer in urban and ruderal areas, first collected in V Turku in the 1850’s; most common in V Turku and U Helsinki, perhaps overlooked in other provinces, recorded at least in A Vårdö (several times), St Hämeenkyrö 1905, EH Somero 1936, PS Varkaus 1906 and KP Raahe 1994. – Also recorded from SF Flora (Lid & Lid 2005), but no specimen has been seen.
Temperate Europe, W Asia.
Habitat. Moist to wet, more or less base-rich and nutrient-rich soil, especially in bare (e.g. cattle-trampled) patches, in full sun or moderate shade. Freshwater shores and relevés along rivers and streams, mud-pools in deciduous woodland or pastures; ponds and ditches; ruderal ground (even fairly dry) in urban areas; sometimes as a garden weed. Declining in the north, at least in S, due to drainage and overgrowth, and perhaps also due to competition with E. adenocaulon and E. hirsutum.
Variation. The leaves vary in outline from elliptic to ovate,  but are always attenuate to truncate at base, with petiole at least 3 mm and usually much longer in some leaves.
Hybridization. Hybrids of Epilobium roseum are known with E. adenocaulon (17), E. ciliatum (18), E. collinum (4), E. glandulosum (16), E. hirsutum (1), E. lamyi (11), E. montanum (3), E. obscurum (8), E. palustre (5), E. parviflorum (2), and E. tetragonum (10).

10. Epilobium tetragonum L.    Map   Ill.

Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 348 (1753). – Type: Linnaean Herbarium 486.6 (LINN) lectotype, sel. by Marshall, J. Bot. 45: 367 (1907).
E. adnatum Griseb. (1852).
D Kantet Dueurt. F särmähorsma. N kantmjølke. S kantdunört.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by turions formed in autumn at stem base and at the ends of up to 10 mm long stolons as loose rosettes of green, 10–100 mm long, spathulate to elliptic leaves; indumentum on all parts of the plant of appressed eglandular hairs only. Shoots (15–)60–80(–110) cm, erect, in small specimens simple, in large ones branched from the middle part. Stem 2–7 mm thick, rounded quadrangular above, subterete below, with 4 raised lines, subglabrous below, sparsely hairy above especially on the lines. Leaves opposite (most of them). Basal leaves small, spathulate to elliptic. Middle leaves (25–)40–80(–95) × 5–15(–22) mm, sessile, not or slightly decurrent, narrowly lanceolate to oblong, acute, conspicuously serrate with many obtuse, up to 1 mm long, more or less forwards-pointing teeth. Upper leaves subglabrous underneath, with only a few hairs on the midrib.
Inflorescence in large specimens repeatedly branched with many 5–35-flowered racemes; first bracts like the cauline leaves, upper ones smaller and narrower; fruiting pedicels (10–)15–25(–40) mm. Buds ovoidal with a distinct conical tip. Sepals 4.0–5.5 mm, connate for 1–1.5 mm, lanceolate, apiculate, green as young, later reddish, densely hairy on the tube, moderately above. Petals (4.5–)5–6.6(–7.5) mm, dark purplish-pink or rarely lighter. Stamens unequal (short filaments about 2/3 as long as the longest ones). Style equalling or slightly longer than the long stamens. Stigma capitate. Capsule (55–)70–85(–95) mm, as ripe sparsely to moderately hairy. Seeds 0.9–1.1 × 0.4–0.5 mm, narrowly obovoidal, with distinct rows of 0.2–0.3 mm papillae, without a neck; seed hairs 6.5–7.5 mm. – Summer to early autumn.
2n=36 (S Sk). – [2n=36]
Distribution. Probably archaeophytic in eastern D and southeasternmost S, elsewhere a late but successful incomer. – D in the 1960’s absent from most of Jylland and scattered to locally common on the islands, now scattered to rare in VJy and western SJy; elsewhere common. N probably established at least in Øf (Sarpsborg since 1961, Fredrikstad since 1964); Te Porsgrunn 1980 (filling soil), Vf Sande 2002 and He Nes 2002 (plant nursery). S probably archaeophytic in Sk, Öl and Gtl, elsewhere a recent introduction; increasing; fairly common in lowland Sk and in Öl and Gtl, scattered in Bl, Hl and BhG, and rare in Vg; a rare casual in Klm (5 localities, first record 1961), SmI Göteryd 2001, Lemnhult 1999, Traryd 1990’s, Ög Mjölby 2001, Upl Stockholm (several records 1906–24), Uppsala 1916, Gst Gävle 1881 (ballast), Hls Hudiksvall 1883 and Nb Piteå 1916 (ballast). F V Turku 1884–1906 (with ballast), U Helsinki 1921, 1930 (weed in botanical garden), Hanko 1942, 1945 (lake shore). – Also reported from S Vsm (Malmgren 1982), but the specimen is E. lamyi.
Throughout Europe and W Asia except the extreme north, common as introduced or casual elsewhere.
Habitat. Bare, moderately dry to moist, base-rich and nutrient-rich soil; light-demanding. Man-made habitats like ditches, roadsides, field margins, fallows, farmland areas and ruderal ground; also a weed of gardens and nurseries.
Biology. The stigma is usually surrounded by the opening upper anthers at the onset of anthesis, which certainly leads to a high degree of autogamy. This is the main factor keeping it separate from E. lamyi; hybrids between them, when formed, are almost fully fertile.
Taxonomy. Epilobium tetragonum is very close to E. lamyi; some authors (e.g., Raven 1968) treat them as subspecies. They do form fertile hybrids, but occur together over large areas without more than occasional such intermediates.
Similar taxa. Epilobium tetragonum and E. lamyi are often mixed up. The best diagnostic characters are on the bracts and the fruits; in E. tetragonum the bract midribs have no or few hairs underneath, and the indumentum of calyx base and fruit is less dense. E. tetragonum also differs in larger, more forwards-pointing teeth of the leaf margin, larger bracts, longer fruiting pedicels and generally smaller and narrower petals. – These two have sometimes been confused with E. obscurum (8), but differ from that and all other Nordic species in a total lack of glandular hairs.
Hybridization. Epilobium tetragonum hybrids are known with E. adenocaulon (17), E. ciliatum (18), E. lamyi (11), E. montanum (3), E. palustre (5), E. parviflorum (2) and E. roseum (9). – Hybrids with E. glandulosum (16) have been reported but not verified.

11. Epilobium lamyi F.W. Schultz    Map   Ill.

Schultz, Flora (Regensburg) 27: 806 (1844). – E. tetragonum subsp. lamyi (F.W. Schultz) Nyman (1879). – Described from France (Limoges).
D Rank Dueurt. F harmaahorsma. N gråmjølke. S grådunört.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by turions formed in autumn at the ends of up to 10 mm long stolons as loose rosettes of green, 15–90 mm long, spathulate to elliptical leaves; indumentum on all parts of the plant exclusively eglandular. Shoots (15–)40–75(–110) cm, erect, usually branched from the middle, rarely simple (small specimens). Stem 2–5 mm thick, tetragonous above, terete below, with 4 raised lines, sparsely hairy below mainly on the lines, more densely and evenly above. Leaves opposite (most of them). Basal leaves smaller, spathulate to elliptic. Middle leaves (15–)30–60(–90) × 5–12(–20) mm, sessile or with an up to 2 mm petiole, not decurrent, narrowly lanceolate to oblong, acute or obtuse, conspicuously serrate with more or less forwards-pointing up to 0.5 mm teeth. Upper leaves and bracts densely hairy underneath the midrib.
Inflorescence in large specimens repeatedly branched with many 10–15-flowered racemes; bracts smaller and narrower than the stem leaves; fruiting pedicels (5–)7–12(–20) mm. Buds ovoidal with a distinct conical tip. Sepals 4.0–5.5(–6.0) mm, connate for 1–1.5 mm, lanceolate, green as young, later often reddish, densely hairy on the tube, moderately above. Petals (4.5–)7–8 mm, dark purplish-pink or rarely reddish-pink. Stamens unequal (short filaments 1/2–2/3 as long as the longest ones). Style about equalling the long stamens. Stigma capitate. Capsule (55–)65–80(–95) mm, as ripe densely and evenly hairy. Seeds 0.85–1.0 × 0.45–0.5 mm, narrowly obovoidal, with distinct rows of c. 0.3 mm papillae, without a neck; seed hairs 6–7.5 mm. – Summer to early autumn.
2n=36 (F V). – [2n=36]
Distribution. Nem–BNem. – Probably native or at least an early anthropochore in eastern D, southeastern S and southwesternmost F, increasing during the late 20th century in southern Norden. D in the 1960’s common only in LFM and in Sjæ the København area, elsewhere very rare (almost completely absent from Jylland); now on the whole resident and common in all provinces, but less common in the western parts of VJy and SJy. S probably archaeophytic in Sk, Öl, Gtl and Ög, elsewhere a recent introduction; increasing; fairly common in southwestern Sk, scattered in eastern coastal Bl, in Öl and Gtl, southern coastal Hl, coastal Klm, coastal Srm and southeastern Upl; elsewhere rare and usually casual: SmI Markaryd 1985, BhG c. 10 records, Nrk Kil 1861 and Vsm Kungsåra (temporarily established, documented 1879–86) and Sala 1896. F probably native, although mainly recorded in man-made habitats; A Finström, Lumparland, Saltvik and Sund (latest record 1991), V Korppoo and Nauvo; formerly in springs in Lohja (latest record 1979) and Karjalohja.
Distribution imperfectly known due to confusion with E. tetragonum; probably Europe, Asia Minor and Madeira.
Habitat. Bare, moderately dry to moist, base-rich and nutrient-rich soil; light-demanding. Man-made habitats like ditches, roadsides, field margins, fallows, farmland areas and ruderal ground; also a weed of gardens and nurseries.
Biology. The stigma is surrounded by the opening upper anthers in the opening flower. This means that an almost obligate selfing will act as a stabilizing factor for the species, but does not prevent it from acting as pollen donor to neighbouring plants.
Similar taxa see under E. obscurum (8) and E. tetragonum (10).
Hybridization. Hybrids of Epilobium lamyi are known with E. adenocaulon (17), E. collinum (4), E. hirsutum (1), E. montanum (3), E. obscurum (8), E. palustre (5), E. parviflorum (2), E. roseum (9), and E. tetragonum (10). Hybridization with E. tetragonum may occur more frequently than indicated by the few finds, as these hybrids are difficult to identify.

12. Epilobium anagallidifolium Lam.    Map   Ill.

Lamarck, Encycl. 2: 376 (1786). – Described from France (“Mont d´Or”).
F tunturihorsma. Fa arvadúnurt. I fjalladúnurt. N dvergmjølke. S dvärgdunört.
Literature. Kytövuori 1973.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by remaining stolons or by turion-like loose rosettes of green leaves formed at the ends of up to 5 cm long epigeal stolons from the stem bases in autumn. Shoots (2–)5–15(–20) cm, erect from an ascending base, often several unbranched stems from a creeping and branching, ± mat-forming basal part. Stem terete, in basal part with 4 raised lines, hairs almost exclusively eglandular, in two rows. Leaves often reddish on margins and veins, lower ones opposite, upper ones alternate; petioles short, not decurrent. Basal leaves small, obovate to spathulate and densely set, glabrous or almost so. Middle and upper leaves 5–20(–25) × 2–5(–10) mm, ovate to elliptic, obtuse, entire (or some upper ones acute and weakly serrate), ± glabrous, upper ones sparsely hairy on margin and underneath the midrib.
Inflorescence nodding when young, simple, 1–3(–5)-flowered; bracts smaller than the cauline leaves; pedicels erect, fruiting pedicels (6–)20–40(–50) mm, often at least one longer than the capsule. Buds broadly ellipsoidal to ovoidal, obtuse. Sepals 3–4 mm, with red glandular margin and often finely lacerate apex. Petals 3.5–7 mm, reddish or pinkish-purple. Stamens slightly unequal (short filaments c. ¾ as long as the longest ones). Style equalling or exceeding the long stamens. Stigma capitate. Capsule 20–30(–35) mm, as young sparsely hairy with mixed glandular and eglandular hairs, as ripe subglabrous. Seeds 0.8–1.1 × 0.35–0.5 mm; papillae short and obtuse, the seed appearing smooth in low magnification; neck c. 0.05 mm; seed hairs 3–5 mm. – Summer to early autumn.
2n = 36 (N Ro, ST, Op, S Lapland). – [2n = 36; naturally ocurring haploids 18]
Distribution. [MBor–]NBor—MAlp; SArkt. Alt. c. 1840 m (N Op Lom). – Indigenous; a northern species mainly growing above the woodland limit. N  common in the mountains and the northern lowlands, absent from the southern lowlands. S common in the mountains from northern Dlr northwards, rare in the uplands further east. F common in northwestern EnL and northern InL, scattered in KiL south to Kolari (Äkäsjoki), SoL and Ks south to Salla (Värriötunturi). Fa scattered throughout. I common in all provinces but less frequent in the lowlands of ISu and IVe. AI JM Fishburndalen. – Also reported from N Ak (Lid & Lid 2005), but no voucher has been seen; a report from S Ång (Westerström 2008) was based on small specimens of E. hornemannii.
An arctic-alpine circumpolar species.
Habitat. Snowbeds, bare wet soil, alpine low-herb meadows; at lower altitudes shores of brooklets and moist depressions; sometimes along roads and tracks. Growing on base-poor as well as base-rich substrates.
Biology. Epilobium anagallidifolium is one of few vascular plants really well adapted to late snowbeds. It branches richly from the base, forming dense mat-like stands; plants may survive under the snow for several years, and flowering and seed-setting occur in favourable years only. The anthers open earlier than the corolla, or only a little later; in bad weather the flowers do not open at all.
Variation. When growing in exposed and periodically dry places, Epilobium anagallidifolium has often a low, mat-like habit and flowers on short stems with all leaves like the basal. In protected and well watered positions the flowering stems become taller with long internodes and broader, more lanceolate leaves, the uppermost sometimes acutish and faintly dentate.
Hybridization. Hybrids of Epilobium anagallidifolium are known with E. hornemannii (14), E. lactiflorum (15) and E. palustre (5). – Hybrids with E. alsinifolium and E. davuricum were reported with hesitation by Elven (2005).

13. Epilobium alsinifolium Vill.    Map   Ill.

Villars, Prosp. Hist. Pl. Dauphine: 45 (1779). – Described from France (Dauphiné).
F hetehorsma. Fa áardúnurt. I lindadúnurt. N kjeldemjølke. S källdunört.
Literature. Kytövuori 1973.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by c. 10 × 5 mm large compact turions of obtuse, fleshy leaves, formed in the autumn at the ends of long, 1–2 mm thick hypogeal to aquatic stolons; stolons as well as ± thin epigeal runners present at flowering time. Shoots (10–)15–30(–50) cm, erect from a more or less ascending base. Stem terete, with 4 lines in basal part; hairs in 2 lines, sometimes also more evenly placed apically. Leaves opposite but some upper ones alternate; petioles short, not decurrent, subglabrous, but midrib sparsely hairy underneath. Basal leaves small, scale-like or obovate to elliptical. Middle and upper leaves (10–)20–35(–60) × (5–)10–18(–25) mm, ovate, obtuse (or upper ones acute), serrate with small but regular teeth.
Inflorescence usually simple, of 4–7(–10) flowers, becoming conspicuously prolonged in fruit; bracts large, like the cauline leaves, concealing the buds in early flower; fruiting pedicels (10–)15–30(–50) mm. Buds obtuse with a minute mucro. Sepals 5–7 mm, often glandular-fringed above. Petals (6–)9–13 mm, usually reddish-violet, rarely lighter or white. Stamens unequal (short filaments about 2/3 as long as the longest ones). Style equalling or shorter than the long stamens. Stigma capitate. Capsule 40–60(–70) mm, as young moderately to densely glandular-hairy, as ripe subglabrous. Seeds (1.1–)1.4–1.8 × (0.35–)0.45–0.55 mm, with high papillae in conspicuous rows; neck (0.05–)0.1–0.15 mm; seed hairs 4.5–7 mm. – Mid-summer to early autumn.
2n=36 (N ST). – [2n=36]
Distribution. MBor–LAlp. Alt. 1370 m (N Ho Ulvik). – Indigenous; a northern species mainly growing below the woodland limit. N common or fairly common except in the very south and southeast; southernmost occurrences in AA Bykle and Ro Suldal. S scattered in the mountains and uplands south to western Dlr and southwestern Hls, in the coastal provinces mainly in the interior parts. F rare in EnL and InL, scattered in edaphically favourable areas in PeP, Ks, KiL and SoL; southernmost records OP Pudasjärvi and Kn Hyrynsalmi, Paltamo and Puolanka. Fa common throughout. I common in all provinces but less frequent in drier parts of IMi. – Also reported from N Ak (Lid & Lid 2005) but no voucher has been seen. A specimen from S Upl Björklinge 1888 was probably mislabelled.
Outside Norden in northwestern Russia, the British Isles, and the C and S European mountains; one station in Greenland.
Habitat. Moss carpets in cold springs (mainly in forest slopes but also at margins of mires) and along spring-fed brooklets; only rarely in man-made habitats like ditches. Requires a high supply of mineral nutrients.
Biology. Epilobium alsinifolium propagates efficiently within a watercourse or wetland, forming dense, continuous stands by means of its long, thick stolons; other species of Epilobium can grow only at the drier margins of such stands. In comparison with the related E. hornemannii (14), seed dispersal is less important; E. alsinifolium has much heavier seeds, fewer seeds per capsule, and fewer capsules per plant.
Variation. Epilobium alsinifolium is very variable in habit depending on different water depth and height of surrounding vegetation. Sometimes it is low and branching from the base, sometimes tall and simple with many leaves below the inflorescence. The indumentum is sometimes dense, but if so almost exclusively glandular. The plant changes in general habit towards autumn, when the internodes of the inflorescence elongate above the large lower bracts.
Similar species. In fruit, Epilobium alsinifolium differs from the other northern species by the size and ornamentation of its seeds. In early anthesis its broad bracts and large first flowers will mostly make it easily determinable. In late anthesis it is often very difficult to distinguish from E. hornemannii, the dominance of glandular hairs and the large seeds then being the best characters.
Hybridization. When occurring together with other mountain species Epilobium alsinifolium hybridizes at least with E. hornemannii (14) and E. lactiflorum (15), but the hybrids show very low fertility. Hybrids are also known with E. montanum (3) and E. palustre (5). Hybridization with E. anagallidifolium (12) has not been confirmed.

14. Epilobium hornemannii Rchb.    Map   Ill.

Reichenbach, Iconogr. Bot. Pl. Crit. 2: 73 (1825). – Types: Flora Danica, Fasc. 24, Tab. 1387, ill. (1810) lectotype, and N ST Opdal, Kongsvoll, 6.VIII.1953 Norlindh & Wall (S) epitype, both sel. by Snogerup, Nordic J. Bot. **: *** (2009).
F pohjanhorsma. I heiðadúnurt. N setermjølke. S fjälldunört.
Literature. Kytövuori 1973.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by turions of loosely rosetted, green, 1.5–10 mm long leaves, formed at the ends of 5–20(–50) mm long and c. 1 mm thick, usually green, epigeal, often erect to erecto-patent stolons, some thin short epigeal stolons often present from early summer. Shoots (10–)15–30(–40) cm usually simple, rarely with some short branches from the first nodes but usually not from upper stem leaf axils. Stem 1–2(–3) mm thick, terete with 4 inconspicuous ridges below midribs and leaf margins, the two below the leaf margins with rows of hairs, hairs 0.1–0.3 mm, usually all eglandular, incurved, rarely also some erect glandular hairs in upper part. Leaves opposite (only some of the uppermost ones alternate), all petiolate; petiole 1–5(–10) mm. Basal leaves small, obovate to elliptical, often some scalelike. Middle and upper leaves (10–)20–30(–50) × (5–)8–15(–25) mm, ovate to narrowly ovate (or some of the first ones elliptical), tapering to an obtuse (or in upper ones always acute) apex, serrate with teeth usually shorter than 0.5 mm, subglabrous (usually hairs only underneath the midrib).
Inflorescence almost erect even as young though often bent in dried material, usually 3–10-flowered; first bracts like lower leaves, later ones smaller; pedicels erect to erecto-patent, in fruit (10–)15–30(–40) mm. Buds broadly ellipsoidal to subglobose, obtuse. Sepals (3–)4.5–5.5 mm, connate for c. 1.5 mm, narrowly ovate, obtuse or acute, always redddish, with purplish glandular margin, sparsely glandular-hairy. Petals (4.5–)5–7(–8.5) mm, reddish or pinkish purple, very rarely white. Stamens slightly unequal (short filaments about ¾ as long as the longest ones). Style shorter than the long stamens. Stigma capitate. Capsule (35–)40–50(–55) mm, when young densely or moderately glandular-hairy, ripe fruit usually subglabrous, hairs 0.1–0.2 mm, erect. Seeds 1.0–1.25(–1.4) × 0.35–0.45 mm, narrowly obovoidal, with many rows of more or less conical papillae; neck 0.05–0.15 mm; seed hairs 3.5–5.5 mm. – Summer to early autumn.
2n=36 (N ST, F InL). – [2n=36]
Distribution. MBor–LAlp[–MAlp]. Alt. 1540 m (N Ho Ulvik). – Indigenous; a northern species growing below as well as slightly above the woodland limit. N common in mountain areas except the very south and southeast (no specimens have been seen from Vf or VA), in the north also in lowlands and along the coast. S fairly common to common in the mountains and uplands south to northern Vrm, Vsm Hällefors and Gst Ovansjö, in the coastal provinces mainly in the interior parts. F fairly common south to Kn; rare in OP; southernmost records from KP Lestijärvi, northern PS and PK Lieksa. I on the whole common, but more scattered in the south (almost absent from lowland ISu and IVe Reykjanesskagi.
Amphiatlantic (also Greenland) and amphipacific.
Habitat. In springs or along brooklets, usually in moss carpets, but also at mire margins, in mire depressions, or on mineral soil at groundwater outflows on lake-shores; above the forest limit also in wet meadows and snow-patches; also in wet forest-tracks, ditches; sometimes in large stands in clear-felled areas. Not very demanding as to mineral nutrients; reported from base-poor as well as base-rich substrates.
Biology. The stolons are less well-developed in Epilobium hornemannii than in the similar species E. alsinifolium (13) and vegetative reproduction is apparently not as dominant as in that species. On the other hand, the seeds are more numerous and much lighter than in E. alsinifolium and wind-dispersal appears to be very efficient (E. hornemannii is usually present in all suitable habitats in an area). The anthers do not open until some hours after the opening of the corolla. Thus there seems to be more chances for cross-pollination than in E. anagallidifolium (12) and E. lactiflorum (15). However, when the flower closes in the evening or in cloudy weather the anthers come into contact with the stigma, effecting self-pollination.
Variation. Epilobium hornemannii specimens with white flowers, found e.g. at F KiL Muonio, have sometimes been interpreted as hybrids with E. lactiflorum, but when fully fertile and with typical leaf shape they must be classed as pure E. hornemannii.
Similar taxa. Epilobium hornemannii is similar to E. alsinifolium (13) and E. lactiflorum (15); for differences see the latter two.
Hybridization. Hybrids of Epilobium hornemannii are known with E. alsinifolium (13), E. anagallidifolium (12), E. lactiflorum (15) and E. palustre (5).

15. Epilobium lactiflorum Hausskn.    Map   Ill.

Haussknecht, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 29: 89 (1879). – Described from the northern boreal zone in Europe, E Asia and N America.
E. alpinum L. (1753), nom. rej.
D Mælke-Dueurt. F valkohorsma. Fa ljós dúnurt. I ljósadúnurt. N kvitmjølke. S mjölkdunört.
Literature. Kytövuori 1973.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by turions of loose rosettes of 2–10 mm long leaves formed in the axils of basal leaves or at the ends of up to 10 mm long and 0.5–1 mm thick stolons. Shoot (5–)15–30(–40) cm, usually single but sometimes several closely together because of proliferation of several closely situated turions from former years. Stem 1–2 mm thick, terete, at least in basal part with four raised lines below midribs and leaf margins, those below the leaf margins with rows of hairs, hairs 0.1–0.3 mm, usually all eglandular, incurved, rarely some erect, glandular ones above. Leaves opposite or some upper ones alternate, all petiolate, almost glabrous (small hairs like those of the stem only on midrib and margin), subentire or (upper ones) serrate with small teeth; petiole 0.5–4(–8) mm, longest in lower leaves, bases surrounding the stem but never decurrent. Basal leaves small, spathulate to elliptical. Middle and upper leaves (10–)15–35(–40) × (3–)5–12(–15) mm, lanceolate (or some elliptical); middle leaves usually obtuse, upper ones smaller, narrower and acute.
Inflorescence simple, 1–8(–15)-flowered, almost erect even as young though often bent in dried material; bracts smaller than the other leaves, not concealing the buds; pedicels (10–)15–30 or in large specimens up to 50 mm in fruit, erect to erecto-patent or in early fruit some decumbent. Buds broadly ellipsoidal, with a distinct but blunt tip. Sepals (2.8–)3.5–4.5(–5) mm, connate for 1–1.5 mm, narrowly ovate, acute or rarely obtuse, pure green or reddish, sparsely glandular-hairy. Petals (3–)4.5–5.5(–7) mm, white, pinkish white or rarely pinkish violet. Stamens unequal (shortest filaments 2/3–3/4 as long as the longest one). Style equalling or shorter than the long stamens. Stigma capitate. Capsule 35–50(–60) mm, as young sparsely to densely glandular-hairy, hairs erect, 0.1–0.2 mm. Seeds (1–)1.2–1.35(–1.4) × 0.35–0.45 mm, narrowly obovoidal with one flattened side, acutely tapering to the base, obtuse at apex, with many rows or very low and obtuse papillae or at low magnification smooth; neck 0.05–0.15 mm; seed hairs 7–9 mm. – Summer to early autumn.
[2n=36]
Distribution. MBor–LAlp(–MAlp). 1660 m (N Op Lom). – Indigenous; a northern species growing below as well as slightly above the woodland limit. N common or fairly common in most provinces, rare in Vf and VA, lacking only in Øf. S fairly common in the mountains and uplands south to northernmost Vrm and southern Dlr; in the coastal provinces mainly or exclusively in the interior parts. F common in northwestern EnL; also KiL Kittilä (Pallastunturi area) and InL Utsjoki. Fa common throughout. I common to fairly common in the mountains, almost absent from the lowlands. – Reported as casual from D NJy Nykøbing 1972 (Nielsen 1988) but the origin of the material is doubtful.
Amphi-atlantic.
Habitat. Wet or moist, usually nutrient-poor habitats, mainly peat or mineral ground; tolerant of moderate shade; slightly calciphilous. Moist depressions in forest, willow thickets, herb-rich birch forest, scree and meadows below cliffs, open patches in solifluction slopes; more rarely along brooks or at groundwater outflows. Hemerophilous, thriving on clear-felled areas, along paths and forest tracks.
Biology. The anthers open earlier than the corolla, or only a little later; in bad weather the flowers do not open at all.
Similar taxa. Epilobium lactiflorum is vegetatively often very similar to E. hornemannii; in cases of doubt best distinguished by the long seed hairs and low, rounded papillae of the seeds, which appear smooth at low magnification. Also the flower colour is usually diagnostic, but all related species can rarely appear with white flowers. Deep pink flowers in E. lactiflorum may depend on introgressive hybridization with E. hornemannii or E. anagallidifolium.
Hybridization. Epilobium lactiflorum has formed hybrids with E. alsinifolium (13), E. anagallidifolium (12), E. davuricum (7), E. hornemannii (14) and E. palustre (5). – Hybridization with E. montanum (3) could not be confirmed.

16. Epilobium glandulosum Lehm.    Map   Ill.

Lehmann, Nov. stirp. pug. 2: 14 (1830). – E. ciliatum subsp. glandulosum (Lehm.) Hoch & P.H. Raven (1977). – Described from Canada (Saskatchewan).
D Alaska-Dueurt. F lännenhorsma. Fa kertildúnurt. I kirtildúnurt. N alaskamjølke. S alaskadunört.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by turions formed in the autumn directly on lowest stem nodes or at the ends of up to 10 mm long stolons as dense rosettes of c. 10 8–15 mm long, broadly ovate, obtuse, fleshy leaves which become dark reddish in exposed positions. Shoots (20–)40–90(–110) cm, usually with a few short branches above or in small specimens unbranched. Stem (1.5–)2.5–4(–6) mm thick, terete with lines below the leaf margins becoming inconspicuous on old stem parts, subglabrous to sparsely hairy below to densely so apically, hairs usually more densely placed on the lines, most ones glandular, 0–0.3 mm, erect or incurved, some eglandular, incurved to appressed and 0.2–0.4 mm long. Leaves opposite but most bracts usually alternate; leaf-bases often united but never decurrent. Basal leaves subglabrous; petiole up to 10 mm; blade obovate-spathulate to lanceolate, subentire. Middle cauline leaves sparsely hairy especially on petiole, margin and veins; petiole 0–2 mm; blade (35–)50–90 × (15–)20–30(–35) mm, ovate to lanceolate, mostly broadest near the middle, acute, subentire in basal part, towards apex gradually more sharply but often irregularly serrate, teeth usually c. 0.5 mm.
Main inflorescence often long, 5–20(–30)-flowered, branches few with usually few-flowered racemes; most bracts large, like the middle leaves, upper ones smaller and narrower; pedicels in fruit (5–)10–15 mm. Buds obovoidal to ellipsoidal, with a 0.2–0.3 mm long mucro. Sepals (3.5–)4.5–5 mm, connate for c. 1.5 mm, lanceolate, green to reddish, usually sparsely glandular, more densely so on the tube, rarely with some eglandular hairs. Petals (6–)6.5–7.5(–8.5) mm, pinkish-purple or pink. Stamens very unequal (short filaments up to half as long as the long ones); anthers (0.5–)0.7–0.9 mm, often opening before anthesis. Style equalling or shorter than the long stamens. Stigma capitate. Capsule 50–60(–70) mm, sparsely to densely hairy, usually with glandular hairs only, rarely with few eglandular ones as well. Seeds 1–0–1.3(–1.4) × 0.4–0.5(–0.6) mm, with prominent papillose edges; neck inconspicuous or up to 0.05 mm; seed hairs 6–7.5 mm. – Summer to autumn.
[2n=36]
Distribution. Nem—BNem[–SBor]. Alt. 700 m (N ST Røros). – Introduced by intentional cultivation and with garden plants, then from ruderal sites effectively spreading by various transports, but nowhere in mainland Norden really common. – D rare to fairly common in most provinces (first finds: Sjæ København 1891, Brn 1985, SJy 1989, NJy 1992, ØJy 2001, LFM 2002), not yet known from VJy or FyL. N first found in Ak Oslo 1927, Ho Bergen 1928 and ST Skaun (Buvik) 1932; by the year 2000 recorded from most provinces and fairly common in the west. S first records 1909 (Gtl Martebo, Vg Skövde); so far (2007) recorded from most provinces north to BhG, Vg, Nrk, Vsm and Upl (but not Öl), but mostly rare, more numerous finds only from Srm, Upl and BhG (Stockholm, Uppsala and Göteborg areas). F U scattered (common in Helsinki, first recorded 1927 at the Botanical Garden); elsewhere probably overlooked but recorded from A Jomala 1967, V several places (first in Lohja and Turku 1967), St Säkylä 1968, KP Uusikaarlepyy 2004, OP Oulu since 1988. I first found in IVe Reykjavik 1963, ISu 1976. Fa first find Tórshavn 1957; now established. – A report from Nb (Stenberg 2005) was due to misidentification; also reported from S Gst Gävle (Lindberg 1978) but there is no voucher.
Native to N America; details in native and antropochorous distribution imperfectly known.
Habitat. Apparently better adapted to a more oceanic climate than the other American species. At least in S apparently not very competitive; mainly on bare, often damp soil: ditches, roadsides, town streets, ruderal ground, as a weed in gardens and plantations.
Biology. Epilobium glandulosum sets seed mainly by selfing, since the anthers open early around the stigma.
Variation and taxonomy. In plants from N VA, Ro and Ho, leaves are often unusually narrow and widest near the base. – Elven (2005) treated Epilobium glandulosum as a subspecies of E. ciliatum (18). The taxonomy of species 18–20 is discussed under the genus heading.
Similar taxa. Epilobium glandulosum is similar to E. adenocaulon (17) and E. ciliatum (18). Best recognized in the field by its long, many-flowered racemes with large bracts, the long pedicels of the first flowers and the erect pedicels of buds and young flowers. The most reliable character is the indumentum of the capsule, consisting exclusively (or almost so) of glandular hairs, often some of them longer than in other Nordic species.
Hybridization. Epilobium glandulosum forms hybrids with E. adenocaulon (17), E. ciliatum (18), E. hirsutum (1), E. montanum (3), E. palustre (5), E. obscurum (8), E. parviflorum (2), E. roseum (9), and E. tetragonum (10).

17. Epilobium adenocaulon Hausskn.    Map   Ill.

Haussknecht, Österr. Bot. Zeitschr. 29: 119 (1879). – Type: USA, Ohio, Drege 9.17 (LE) lectotype, sel. by Munz, North Amer. Fl. 2(5): 219 (1965).
E. watsonii sensu Lid & Lid (1995), non Barbey (1876).

D Almindelig Kirtel-Dueurt. F amerikanhorsma. I vætudúnurt. N amerikamjølke. S amerikansk dunört.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by turions formed late in the autumn on soil surface on basal nodes or at the ends of up to 10 mm long stolons as dense rosettes of 10–15 mm long broadly obovate to elliptical, fleshy, in exposed positions reddish leaves. Shoots (25–)50–100(–130) cm, branched apically or rarely from the base or in small specimens simple. Stem (1–)2–4(–8) mm thick, terete (young parts with raised lines decurrent from the leaf margins), subglabrous below, moderately hairy above with incurved to appressed 0.2–0.4 mm long eglandular and erect to incurved, 0–0.2 mm long glandular hairs. Leaves opposite, only upper bracts alternate; leaf-bases usually not united and never decurrent. Basal leaves small; petiole up to 10 mm; blade obovate-spathulate, subentire. Middle cauline leaves subglabrous or sparsely hairy mainly on margin and sometimes on the veins; petiole 0–3 mm; blade (30–)50–90(–140) × (8 –)15–25(–40) mm, lanceolate, acute, sharply but often irregularly serrate with largest teeth usually c. 0.5 mm. Upper leaves smaller, narrower and more hairy.
Inflorescence in large individuals much branched; top raceme mostly 10–15-flowered, those on the branches smaller; bracts smaller than the cauline leaves, narrower and more hairy; fruiting pedicels 4–8(–10) mm. Buds obovoidal to broadly ellipsoidal, with a distinct mucro. Sepals (3–)4–4.5 mm, connate to c. 1.5 mm, lanceolate, green to reddish, sparsely to moderately hairy, denser on the tube, with mixed glandular and eglandular hairs. Petals 4–6.5(–7.5) mm, pinkish purple or rarely light pink to white. Stamens fairly unequal, long filaments 2.5–3.5 mm, short filaments 1.5–2 mm (usually at least half as long as the long ones); anthers 0.6–0.9 mm, often opening in the bud. Style equalling or slightly exceeding the long stamens. Stigma capitate. Capsule (45–)50–60(–70) mm; indumentum of mixed eglandular and mostly short glandular hairs, dense on young capsules, moderate to sparse on ripe ones. Seeds (1.0–)1.1–1.3(–1.4) × 0.4–0.45 mm, with conspicuous papillose ridges; neck shorter than 0.05 mm; seed hairs 7–9 mm. – Late spring to autumn.
[2n=36; naturally occurring haploids 18]
Distribution. Nem—MBor[–NBor]. Alt. c. 900 m (N Op Vang). – Probably introduced separately in several different places and spreading successfully with various transports, rapidly becoming common in most provinces where introduced.D first found in 1960 (Sjæ Præstø, NJy Sæby and Knivholt),  recorded from ØJy 1965, Brn 1976, FyL 1980, SJy 1981, LFM 1984 and VJy 1986, now common in all provinces. N first found in Ak Ås 1926; in the 1990’s it had reached the very north (first records: Øf 1954, NT 1958, Bu 1962, He 1964, Op 1964, Vf 1958, Te 1971, ST 1974, AA 1976, VA 1982, SNo 1985, NNo 1990, Ro 1991, SF 1994, MR 1994, Ho 1995, Tr 1995, ØFi 1999). S first records Upl Uppsala 1894 (Almquist 1929), Vg Skallsjö 1898, Srm Vårdinge 1902, Vrm Kristinehamn 1904, Gtl Halla 1910 and BhG Partille 1913; by the year2000 common north to southern Dlr (the commonest Epilobium species in the south), and in the eastern parts of the coastal provinces to Nb; inland poorly documented and possibly still (2007) rare, northernmost record ÅsL Vilhelmina 1998. F first records ES Lappeenranta 1910, U Espoo 1915 and A Lemland 1920; spread rapidly (first records PK 1923, V 1924, EP 1928, EH 1930, St 1932, Kn 1935, EK 1936, PS 1937, KP 1938,  PeP 1947, PH 1949, LK 1965, OP 1981, Ks 1986); now very common and completely naturalized north to OP and Kn, rare and not clearly resident in PeP and Ks. I established in IVe (Reykjavík area), INo Akureyri and western ISu (Hveragerði-Ölfus and Laugarás); first records IVe Reykjavík 1967, INv 1980 and INo 1997
Native to N America; antropochorous distribution uncertain due to taxonomic confusion.
Habitat. On base-rich as well as base-poor, but usually more or less nutrient-rich soil; often in full sun but tolerates moderate shade. Best developed and very competitive on moist to wet ground, in drier conditions mainly on bare ground. Ditches, lake-shores, damp or wet pastures, clear-fellings, tracks, roadsides and ruderal ground; in urban areas frequent in hedges, parks, plantations and in cracks in pavement; also as a garden weed.
Biology as for E. glandulosum (16).
Variation and taxonomy. White-flowered specimens are rare (found e.g. in F OP Oulu). – The taxonomy of species 16–18 is discussed under the genus.
Similar taxa see E. glandulosum (16) and E. ciliatum (18).
Hybridization. Epilobium adenocaulon appears to cross easily with many indigenous European taxa, but the offspring is usually ± sterile. Hybrids with E. glandulosum and E. ciliatum are fertile but rare, all three species being almost completely autogamous. Hybrids are known with E. alsinifolium (13), E. ciliatum (18), E. glandulosum (16), E. hirsutum (1), E. lamyi (11), E. montanum (3), E. obscurum (8), E. palustre (5), E. parviflorum (2), E. roseum (9), and E. tetragonum (10).

18. Epilobium ciliatum Raf.    Map   Ill.

Rafinesque, Med. Repos. ser. 2 V:361 (1808). – Described from USA (Pennsylvania).
E. saximontanum auct., non Hausskn. (1879).
E. rubescens auct., non Rydb. (1904).
D Hvidblomstret Kirtel-Dueurt. F vaalea-amerikanhorsma. N blygmjølke. S vit dunört.
Hemicryptophyte overwintering by buds of surviving basal parts without forming specialized turions, or forming turions in late autumn, on basal or lower cauline nodes or on stolons up to 5 mm, as rosettes of 5–10 broadly obovate, subentire, glabrous and somewhat fleshy, reddish leaves. Shoots (15–)30–60(–80) cm, usually branching from near the base with branches emerging at a very narrow angle. Stem (1–)2–4(–6) mm thick, terete, in young parts with raised lines below leaf margins, glabrous to subglabrous below, apically moderately to densely hairy, with 0.2–0.4 mm long, incurved to appressed eglandular and 0–0.25 mm long, patent to incurved glandular hairs. Leaves opposite but most bracts alternate; foot of opposite leaves often united but not decurrent. Basal leaves with 5–10 mm long petiole, obovate-spathulate to elliptic, subentire. Middle cauline leaves (25–)35–60(–110) × (7–)10–20(–27) mm, with petiole 2–8(–12) mm, lanceolate or rarely elliptic, acute, sharply but often irregularly serrate in middle and upper part with teeth less than 0.5 mm, glabrous to subglabrous with hairs mainly on the margin.
Inflorescences 5–15(–20)-flowered; bracts smaller, narrower and more hairy than the cauline leaves; pedicels in fruit (7–)10–20(–40) mm. Buds obovoidal to broadly ellipsoidal, with a distinct, c. 0.2 mm long mucro. Sepals 3–4.5(–5) mm, connate to 1–1.5 mm, lanceolate to elliptic, usually reddish especially on the margins, moderately hairy, densely on the tube, most hairs eglandular. Petals 4–5(–6.5) mm, white or rarely light pink. Stamens unequal, long filaments 2.5–4 mm, short filaments 1.5–2.2 mm (about 2/3 as long as the longest ones); anthers 0.5–0.7 mm, often opening in the bud. Style usually shorter than the long stamens, sometimes only equalling the short ones. Stigma capitate. Capsule (50–)60–75(–85) mm; indumentum a mixture of short glandular and many long, eglandular hairs, dense on young capsules, moderate on ripe ones. Seeds 1.1–1.3 × 0.4–0.45 mm, with prominent papillose ridges; neck to 0.05 mm; seed hairs 6.5–8.5 mm. – Late spring to autumn.
[2n=36]
Distribution. BNem—SBor[–NBor]. Alt. 390 m (N VFi Kautokeino). – A recent introduction but locally naturalized. Grown in botanical gardens since early 20th century, and escaping; probably also introduced, and certainly later spreading successfully, with various transports. – D first found in Sjæ (København 1940) and ØJy (Randers 1965), now in all provinces (first records: LFM 1992, SJy 1993, VJy 1996, NJy 1998, FyL 2000, Brn 2002). N first in Ak Oslo 1934, now found in most provinces (first records: ST 1949, Øf 1954, Bu 1968, Op 1976, NNo 1988 Ho 1990, Vf 1993, SF 1994, Te 1995, He 1997, VFi 1997, Ro 2000). S first records Vg Skallsjö 1898, Srm Vårdinge 1901, Gtl Tingstäde and Martebo 1909, Upl Stockholm 1913 and BhG Göteborg 1924; by the year 2000 fairly common in most areas north to central Vrm and Upl (but fairly rare in eastern Hl and western SmI), further north fairly rare along the coast and in the main river valleys; much less common than E. adenocaulon, except in Gtl. F  first in V (Lohja 1915), A (Mariehamn 1922) and U (Helsinki Botanical Garden since 1917, outside it from 1936); now common in the south and scattered north to OP, Kn, and PeP Rovaniemi (first records: PH 1930, St 1938, KiL 1941, EP 1944, KP 1944, EK 1947, PK 1949, EH 1951, PeP 1951, ES 1958, PS 1965, OP 1988); less common than E. adenocaulon and less well established especially in the north.
Native to N America; widespread as an antropochore but distribution obscure due to taxonomic confusion.
Habitat. Epilobium ciliatum has similar preferences as E. adenocaulon, but is perhaps more restricted to clayey, nutrient-rich soils; it is mainly found in man-made habitats, and is clearly less competitive.
Biology. Epilobium ciliatum, like the two other American species, is certainly an almost obligate selfer, since the opening anthers surround the receptive stigma at early anthesis.
Variation. Specimens with pinkish white to light pink flowers appeared among the first collections in and near the Bergius botanic garden (S Upl) and have later been found e.g. in S Upl Knivsta 1958, Gst Gävle 1945 and F V Lohja 1915. They have not been found to spread successfully anywhere in Norden.
Similar taxa. Epilobium ciliatum is similar to E. glandulosum (16) and E. adenocaulon (17) but often not forming turions. The flowers are mostly smaller than in the other two, and usually pure white. The first branches emerge often near the base and are erect or almost so and the leaves are conspicuously petiolate. The many long eglandular hairs on the capsules offer a good character towards small specimens of E. glandulosum.
Hybridization. Epilobium ciliatum forms hybrids with E. adenocaulon (17), E. collinum (4), E. glandulosum (16), E. montanum (3), E. obscurum (8), E. palustre (5), E. roseum (9), and E. tetragonum (10).

19. Epilobium brunnescens (Cockayne) P.H. Raven & Engelhorn     Map (not in the book).

Raven & Engelhorn, New Zeal. J. Bot. 9: 350 (1971). – E. pedunculare A. Cunn. var. brunnescens Cockayne (1918). – Described from New Zealand.

N krypmjølke. S kividunört.

Literature. Jørgensen 1992, Raven & Raven 1976.
Hemicryptophyte. Creeping perennial herb forming up to 2 m wide patches. Stem light brown, with lines of strigulose hairs below leaf margins or rarely glabrous. Leaves (1.5–)5–8(–13) × (1.5–)3–6(–12) mm, narrowly to broadly ovate to elliptic, acute to obtuse, entire or rarely with few small teeth, tough, often reddish or brownish, smooth.
Flowers single from leaf axils; pedicel 7–55 mm at anthesis, elongating to (30–)50–80 mm in fruit; sepals 1.5–4 mm, glabrous to subglabrous; petals (2.3–)3.2–7 mm, notched, white; stigma surrounded by the anthers at anthesis. Capsule (1.5–)3–6 cm, subglabrous to sparsely hairy; seeds 0.6–0.9(–1.2) mm, minutely papillose.
[2n=36]
Distribution and habitat. Grown for ornament, especially in rock gardens, and escaped; established in a few places. N Ak Bærum 1931, Ro Stavanger at least since 1983 (nursery weed), Ho Bergen since 1974 (weed in botanic garden).
New Zealand; widely naturalized in the British Isles.
Similar taxa. The closely related species E. pedunculare A. Cunn. is also spreading in the British Isles and might turn up in Norden. It has broad, conspicuously serrate, tough leaves often becoming coppery (see Raven & Raven 1976).

20. Epilobium komarovianum H. Lév.       Map (not in the book).

Leveillé, Feddes Repert. 5: 98 (1908). – Type: New Zealand, Southland, The Bluff 1890, T. Kirk (MO) holotype.
E. inornatum Melville (1960).
D Spæd Dueurt. F uudenseelanninhorsma. N brunmjølke. S krypdunört.
Literature. Juva 1985, Jørgensen 1992, Raven & Raven 1976.
Hemicryptophyte. Creeping perennial forming up to 0.5 m wide patches. Stem with lines of eglandular hairs below leaf margins. Leaves 2–5(–12) × 1.5–5(–9) mm, oblong to ovate or rarely suborbicular, obtuse to subacute, entire or with few small teeth, rugose above, often reddish to copper-coloured.
Leaves opposite, 2–5(–12) × 1.5–5(–9) mm, oblong to ovate or rarely suborbicular, obtuse to subacute, entire or with few small teeth, rugose above, often reddish to copper-coloured. Flowers single from leaf axils; pedicel 1–7 mm at anthesis, elongating to 15–35 mm in fruit; sepals 1.5–2.5 mm, glabrous to sparsely hairy; petals 2–4(–5) mm, notched, white; stigma surrounded by the anthers at anthesis. Capsule 0.4–2(–3) cm, subglabrous or sparsely hairy; seeds 0.5–0.9(–1.1) mm, smooth.
[2n=36]
Distribution and habitat. Grown for ornament, especially in rock gardens, and escaped; locally established. D locally established weed, probably spread from nurseries from about 1950; known from NJy Mors 1957, ØJy Kolding 1966, Århus 2006, FyL Holmstrup 1967, Odense 1969 (churchyard), Sjæ first record 1953, 1960’s at least 5 localities, LFM Sundby (originally brought in from Fyn in 1948, recorded as a weed in 1964), Nykøbing 1962. N Ak Oslo at least 1960’s and 1970’s (weed in botanic garden). S Sk Lund (weed in botanic garden at least since the 1980’s), Hl Halmstad 1915 (park weed), Vinberg 1980’s (garden weed), Upl Uppsala 1996 (weed in botanic garden). F cultivated and occurring as weed in botanical gardens in V Turku (three gardens; first recorded 1935; resident in Ruissalo) and U Helsinki (botanical garden, first recorded 1935); elsewhere in V Perniö 1931 (manor garden), U Siuntio 1992 (garden weed) and St Kokemäki 1933 (apparently arrived from Helsinki).
Native to New Zealand; at least locally naturalized or established as a weed in W Europe and USA. – Map (not in the book).
Rare casual
[Epilobium lanceolatum Sebast. & Mauri (F suikealehtihorsma, N tyskarmjølke, S skogsdunört) was reported from N Op Lillehammer by Lid & Lid (2005) based on material that proved to be E. collinum × roseum. The background for a report from F (Kurtto & Lahti 1987) could not be traced. – Documentation.]

Hybrids

Epilobium adenocaulon × alsinifolium. To c. 50 cm, with thick, ascending subterranean part; unbranched; bracts comparatively large. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, conspicuously serrate. Petals 8–10 mm, dark reddish purple. Capsule 3–4 cm. – Filled seeds few, with conspicuous neck and ridges.
N He Trysil 2000. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium adenocaulon × ciliatum. Mostly 40–70 cm, branched only apically. Leaves short-petiolate, narrowly lanceolate. Petals usually 5–7 mm, light pink. – Pollen 90–100% normal; seed-set almost normal.
D ØJy Gjern 1994, VJy Ikast 2003, Sjæ Vordingborg 2000. N Ak Oslo 1999. S BhG Härryda 1938, Mpd Skön 1999. F V Turku 1947, U Helsinki numerous records in the 2000’s, EP Ylistaro 1989, PK Joensuu 1996. Apparently a rare hybrid but probably sometimes overlooked (see comments under the parents). Dwarfed hybrid plants have been found in F V Turku and D ØJy Gjern. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium adenocaulon × glandulosum. In habit closer to E. glandulosum but with smaller bracts and more elongated seeds. Flowers mostly small. Capsule with mixed glandular and eglandular hairs. – Seeds often almost 100% filled.
Rarely observed; easily overlooked except in mixed stands of the parents. D NJy Hjørring and Sæby 2004, Sjæ Allerød 2004. N Ak Oslo 1969, Bu Lier 1992, VA Kristiansand 1982, ST Skaun 1997. S Srm Stockholm 1964. F U Helsinki (first records Kumpula 1976). I IVe Reykjavík, first record 1979, IAu Hallormsstaður 1991. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium adenocaulon × hirsutum. To 120 cm, richly branched above. Densely set with glandular and eglandular hairs in the inflorescence. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, shortly decurrent, lower ones to 100 × 20 mm, finely but conspicuously serrate. Petals 8–10 mm, dark purplish pink. Capsule 3–4.5 cm; seeds with inconspicuous neck and wings.– Pollen formation failing completely or sometimes pollen up to 15(–55)% normal; filled seeds very few.
Found several times where the parents occur together. D NJy (first record 1979), ØJy Rønde 2002. S Sk (first record 1957), Bl Karlskrona at least 1997–2005, Sölvesborg 1986, Sturkö 1997, Öl Torslunda 1999, Klm Fliseryd 1988, SmI Vrå 1980’s, BhG at least Malmön 1997, 2002. F U Helsinki 1992. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium adenocaulon × lamyi. To 80–100 cm, richly branched above (or from the base in late summer to autumn). Glands few and unevenly placed. Leaves conspicuously hairy on midrib below. Capsule mostly only 25–40 mm. – Pollen variable, up to 40% normal. Filled seeds 0–5%, with low wings and many high papillae, unfilled ones with a short neck.
Often found in disturbed localities where the parents meet. D NJy Ålborg 1997, Sejlflod 1998, ØJy Langå 2003, FyL (first record 1989), Sjæ Skovbo 1997, LFM Sakskøbing 2002. S Sk Knislinge 1990, Malmö 1999, Klm Kalmar 1987, Kläckeberga 1993, Dls Sundals-Ryr 1963, Ög Gryt 1945, Upl Ekerö 1929. F V Korppoo, first record 1989. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium adenocaulon × montanum. Mostly 30–70 cm, sometimes taller, becoming densely branched above towards autumn. Densely glandular in the inflorescence. Lower and middle leaves conspicuously petiolate and cordate. Petals 8–12 mm, dark purplish pink. Capsule mostly 2.5–4 cm. Stigma funnel-shaped, shortly 4-lobed. – Pollen 10–25% normal. Seeds variously developed, perfect seeds 5–10%; filled seeds conspicuously ridged.
Rare in disturbed localities where the parents meet. D NJy Ålborg 1998, ØJy Børkop 2003, Sjæ (first record 1986). N Ro Karmøy 1995, Strand 1992. S Sk (first record 1959), Öl Algutsrum 1982, Hl Tjärby and Våxtorp 1990, BhG Göteborg area (first record 1945), Lane-Ryr 2008, Skaftö 1975, Vg Falköping 1966. F V Korppoo 1989, Nauvo 1989, Pohja 1962, Turku 1989, U Helsinki 1947, 1962, Kauniainen 1950, EH Ruovesi 1982, Orivesi 1989. – Also recorded from S Upl and Dlr (Almquist 1929, Almquist & Björkman 1960), but the specimens are E. adenocaulon and E. montanum, respectively. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium adenocaulon × obscurum. Mostly 50–120 cm. Forming some 1–1.5 mm thick subterranean leafy runners in late summer. Pubescence of mostly eglandular hairs below, but many glandular hairs especially in the inflorescence though on calyx mainly at base. Lower and middle leaves to 15 × 3.5 cm, narrowly lanceolate, dentate with short but sharp teeth. Inflorescence with elongating, many-flowered and often repeatedly branched branches. Flowers dark pinkish purple. Capsule 2–4.5 cm; all seeds with a neck. – Pollen 15–25(–40)% normal. Filled seeds few.
Not rare where the parents meet and recently becoming fairly common; voucher material seen from over 70 places. Sometimes forming large and long-lasting stands. D NJy (9 records, first in 1994), ØJy (localities, first in 2000), VJy (7 records, first in 1997), LFM Rødby 2003, Sjæ Hundige 1984. S Sk (24 records, first in 1986), Bl (7 records, first in 1990), Klm (14 records, first ones in 1983), SmI (14 records, first in 1971), Hl (5 records, first in 1959), BhG Mo 1999, Partille 1945, Vg Sandhult 1939, Srm Tyresö 1996, Upl Värmdö 1992. F V Nauvo at least 1988–96, Korppoo (Kopois) 1989. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium adenocaulon × palustre. 50–100 cm; often not or sparsely branched, but large specimens sometimes intricately branched. Thin runners or basal branches forming from early summer, from autumn with small (to 15 mm) turions of thick leaves. Stem angled below, ± evenly hairy. Leaves narrowly lanceolate with small irregular teeth. Petals mostly 4–6 mm, light to dark pinkish purple. Capsule 2.5–5 cm. – Filled seeds sparse, mostly 0–1%, 1.1–1.4 mm, with a small neck.
Not rare in wet places where the parents meet; seen from over 30 localities. D NJy Løkken-Vrå and Sæby 1993, ØJy Randers 2003, VJy Ribe 1995, SJy Bov 2000, LFM Rudbjerg 2004, Sjæ Helsingør 1993, Brn Neksø 2002. N Ak Oslo 1969, Op Jevnaker 1989, Te Hjartdal 1989. S Sk (first record Vomb 1946), SmI Säby 1994, Vrigstad 1987, BhG 7 records (first Göteborg 1938), Vg at least Hillared 1936, Vrm Glava 1942, Upl Stockholm, Norra Djurgården 1966, Mpd Skön 1997. F U Helsinge 1941 and several more recent records, KP Kruunupyy 1969, Kn Vaala 1989, 1999, OP Vaala 1997. – Also reported from S Vsm (Malmgren 1982), but the voucher has not been checked, and from Dlr (Wistrand & Morander 1987), but the voucher is E. palustre. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium adenocaulon × parviflorum. Mostly a tall plant (30–)80–130 cm, with long flowering branches in late summer, inflorescence axis rarely flattened (fasciated). Leaves subsessile, to 8 × 1.5(–2) cm, mostly very narrowly ovate with truncate base. Petals to 6–8 mm but sometimes stunted. Stigma funnel-shaped with four short lobes. Capsule mostly 2–3 cm. – Pollen c. 25% normal. Filled seeds less than 1%.
Apparently a rare hybrid in most areas, but persistent when formed, and recently becoming more common in disturbed sites at watercourses in S Sk. D NJy Hanstholm 2001, ØJy Langå 1995, Tjele 1997, Sjæ Suså 1999, Helsingør 2001. S Sk several records (first in Everöd 1943), Öl Vickleby 1942. – Also recorded from Hl (Georgson et al. 1997) but the voucher is E. adenocaulon × montanum. Map (not in the book).
Epilobium adenocaulon × roseum. Mostly 80–120 cm, richly branched especially above. Leaves ±lanceolate or narrowly so; lower leaves 5–12 × 1.5–3 cm, densely and sharply serrate, truncate at base. Flowers ± abnormal or petals up to 8 mm, light pink. Capsule 2–3.5 cm or not developing. – Pollen variously abnormal, all grains non-staining or rarely up to 10(–30)% normal. Filled seeds 0 or very few.
D Sjæ 1982, Brn 1977. S Sk (recorded at least 11 times, mainly along watercourses, first from Stoby and Tjörnarp 1968), Bl (4 records, first from Mjällby 1988), Öl Mörbylånga 1944, Klm Torsås 1983, SmI Bankeryd 1951, Hl Laholm 1984, Våxtorp 1957, BhG Göteborg area 3 records 1945–46, Kungälv 1972, Rödbo 1971, Vg Toarp 1954, Upl Stockholm 1961. F V Korppoo 1989. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium adenocaulon × tetragonum. At least to 1 m, richly branched above. Basal turions formed in autumn at the stem base, short or up to 5 cm with ± fleshy, rounded to oblanceolate leaves. Pubescence mainly eglandular, with some glands on the fruits. Leaves ± narrowly lanceolate, lower and middle ones with conspicuous teeth, midrib sparsely hairy below. Inflorescence with much prolonged and many-flowered racemes. Capsule 3–4 cm. – Pollen up to 40% normal. Filled seeds less than 10%, with ± conspicuous wings and neck.
D NJy Støvring 2000, ØJy Odder 1998, SJy Ribe 1999, Sjæ Peberholm 2004. N Øf Fredrikstad at least 1964–72. S Hl Halmstad 1983, BhG Lundby 1943–45. – Map (not in the book).

[Epilobium alsinifolium × anagallidifolium was reported from N ØFi Sør-Varanger by Lid & Lid (2005), but no voucher has been seen.] – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium alsinifolium × hornemannii. In habit similar to E. alsinifolium, but more narrow-leaved and often tall; sometimes producing large and long-lived stands by vegetative propagation. Inflorescence becoming long and many-flowered; buds not or incompletely hidden by the bracts. Petals usually 8–10 but sometimes only 5–7 mm. Capsule sometimes ill developed, mostly 20–35 mm, with sparse glandular hairs. – Pollen 10–20% staining, most grains small and mis-shaped. Filled seeds mostly few, but seed-set sometimes better, even up to 50% in some capsule parts.
Artificial hybrids have been made by Kytövuori (1976); hybrids with E. alsinifolium as maternal parent were like the material found in nature (described above), but the reciprocal hybrid had reduced vitality and was completely sterile.
Rare but probably much overlooked because it sometimes grows hidden among one or both parents. Material seen from N He, Op, Ho, ST, NNo, Tr, S Dlr, Mpd, Ång, Hrj, Jmt, Vb, Nb, ÅsL, LyL, LL, TL, F Kn, OP, PeP, Ks, KiL. – Also recorded from N AA Valle and SF Aurland (Lid & Lid 2005) and from F EnL and InL (Lampinen & Lahti 2008). – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium alsinifolium × lactiflorum. 20–25 cm or probably becoming much taller, with thick runners. Stem erect from a creeping base, with few pairs of leaves, small branches often present in lower leaf axils. Leaves up to 50 × 25 mm, weakly serrate (bracts more sharply so), lower ones elliptical, upper ones lanceolate with obtuse apex. Sepals red-margined. Petals 6–8 mm, light purplish pink. Capsule 30–45 mm. – Pollen most staining but irregular in size and shape, 15–30(–70)% normal. Seed-set variously reduced.
Apparently rare, perhaps mainly because the parents prefer different habitats. Material seen from N He Os, SF Lærdal, S Jmt Åre (Duved) and TL Jukkasjärvi (Råtjåvare). – Also recorded from N Te (Lid & Lid 2005). – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium alsinifolium × montanum. 50–60 cm, erect from a 2 mm thick, creeping and rooting base. Stem simple, hairy with hairs denser in opposite lines, many-leaved (leaves opposite below, middle and upper ones alternate). Leaves lanceolate, serrate with many sharp teeth. Petals c. 10 mm. Stigma conspicuously 4-lobed. Capsule ± densely hairy with dominant glandular hairs, not seen as ripe.
S Jmt Frostviken. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium alsinifolium × palustre. 15–35(–60) cm, forming thin runners at base from early summer. Stem simple or branched above, sometimes with stunted branches in many leaf axils, densely hairy on lines and sparsely between them, often with 5–9 pairs of leaves below the inflorescence. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, the upper leaves and first bracts often the largest, upper bracts similar but smaller. Flowers many in a prolonged inflorescence. Petals mostly 8–10 mm, rarely smaller, light to deep purplish pink. Capsule with rather dense indumentum, mostly mixed glandular and eglandular hairs, sometimes only glandular. – Pollen mostly 10–20% normal, very variable in size and staining. Filled seeds very few, c. 1.8–2.0 mm.
Apparently not rare, but perhaps somewhat overcollected because of its size and large flowers. Forming extensive and long-lasting clones in some localities, e.g. F Kn Ristijärvi, Juurikkakorpi and KiL Muonio. N He, Bu, SF, ST, SNo, Tr, VFi, ØFi. S Dlr, Hls, Mpd, Hrj, Jmt, Vb, Nb, ÅsL, LyL, LL, TL. F Kn, OP, PeP, Ks, KiL, SoL, EnL, InL. I IAu, INo. – Also recorded från S Ång (Mascher 2007). – Map (not in the book).
Even experts cannot always distinguish this hybrid from E. hornemannii × palustre based on morphological characters.

[Epilobium anagallidifolium × davuricum was reported from N ST Opdal and Tr Kvænangen by Lid & Lid (2005) and from S Jmt Undersåker by Lange (1938), but no vouchers have been seen. Map (not in the book).]
Epilobium anagallidifolium × hornemannii. 5–10(–15) cm, with creeping and branching base. Stem leaves few, mostly 10–20 mm, obtuse except upper bracts. Inflorescence ± conspicuously nodding as young. Flowers few, variable in size, ± dark purplish. Capsule well-developed, 15–45 mm. – Most or all pollen grains staining but irregular in size and form. Filled seeds 50% or more.
Apparently rare, but easily overlooked because of fairly good fertility and similarity to tall E. anagallidifolium. Specimens seen from N Op, Ho, SF, MR, NNo, Tr, VFi, ØFi, S Hrj, Jmt, ÅsL, LyL, F EnL Kilpisjärvi, I IAu and INv. – Also reported from N AA Bykle (Lid & Lid 2005), but the material has been redetermined, and S LL Jokkmokk (Tengwall 1924), but no voucher has been found. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium anagallidifolium × lactiflorum. 5–15 cm, with creeping and branching base. First leaves scale-like to obovate; most upper leaves alternate, obtuse. Inflorescence ± conspicuously drooping as young. Sepals mostly with red margin. Petals c. 5 mm, pink to pinkish white. – Pollen with most or all grains staining but irregular in size and shape, 50–80% normal.
Probably not rare where the parents meet but easily overlooked. Material seen from N He, Bu, MR, ST, NT, Tr, S Hrj, LL, I INo and IMi. – Also reported from N Op and AA (Lid & Lid 2005), but no material from Op has been found, and that from AA is not convincing. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium anagallidifolium × palustre. 5–10 cm, with thin creeping and branching base. Stem unbranched, hairy along lines below, more evenly and densely so above. Upper leaves linear-lanceolate. Inflorescence few-flowered, conspicuously nodding as young; pedicels and fruit moderately to densely hairy. Sepals slightly fringed above. Petals light purplish pink. Capsule 1.5–2 cm, not seen as ripe. – Pollen formation disturbed. Seed-set apparently failing.
N ST Oppdal, NT Lierne. S LyL Lycksele. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium ciliatum × collinum. At least to 50 cm, becoming very densely branched with prolonged, many-flowered inflorescences. Leaves up to 5 × 1.5 cm, irregularly serrate. Stigma of 4 scarcely spreading lobes. Capsule 1.5–4 cm. – Filled seeds c. 0%. – Lit.: Murbeck (1894).
S Upl Stockholm (spontaneous in the Bergius botanic garden 1892–93. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium ciliatum × glandulosum. 30–60 cm, becoming densely branched above; small fleshy turions form early. Leaves petiolate, ± broadly lanceolate; lower bracts like upper leaves. Petals white or from white start light purplish pink. Capsule to 6 cm, with mainly short and long glandular and few long eglandular hairs. – Pollen variable in shape and size but >95% fully staining. Most seeds filled.
D Sjæ (Bagsværd Sø 1992), S Nrk Kumla 1990, Srm Stockholm (Hammarby sjö 1924) and Upl Stockholm (Norra Djurgården 1963). – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium ciliatum × montanum. 50–80 cm, branched only in the short apical inflorescence. Turions early formed, ± elongated, of small fleshy leaves. Leaves like those of E. montanum but upper ones narrower. Petals 7–10 mm, light purplish. Stigma of 4 ± spreading parts. Capsule 3–4 cm, with many glandular hairs, ridges also densely set with long eglandular hairs. – Pollen irregular in size, shape and staining, sometimes 30% normal. Seed-set irregular; filled seeds like those of E. montanum, without conspicuous neck and ridges.
S Gtl Atlingbo and Bunge 1929, BhG Foss 1957, Ög Kullerstad 1941, Upl Vätö 1945. F V Turku 1939 and 1941 (spontaneous in botanical garden). – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium ciliatum × obscurum. Probably up to at least 80 cm, much branched, pubescence irregular, glandular hairs sparse and on calyx mainly at base. Leaves conspicuously petiolate, sparsely dentate. Petals 6–7 mm, light pink. – Filled seeds less than 5%, with inconspicuous neck and ridges, unfilled seeds with a neck.
D SJy Haderslev 2004. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium ciliatum × palustre. 80–110 cm; inflorescence richly branched. Glands many in the inflorescence, especially on the capsules. Leaves narrowly lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, sparsely dentate. Seeds with conspicuous neck. – Pollen variable, 15–25% normal. Most seeds failing, even large ones often unfilled and with only thin, inconspicuous ridges; filled ones up to 1.4 mm and these sometimes with conspicuous ridges.
Only found in a few places, but sometimes forming large stands. S Sk Malmö 1999, Gtl several records (first at Tingstäde, at least 1912—1920), Srm Nacka (Hammarby sjö 1921–32), Nynäshamn 1964, Upl Bo 1925, Vrm Karlstad 1960. F U Helsinki (Pasila) 1967, Pornainen (Halkia) 1961. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium ciliatum × roseum. 45–80 cm or taller, much branched. Glandular hairs frequent in the inflorescence. Leaves lanceolate, with ± cordate base, coarsely serrate, upper ones conspicuously petiolate. Petals 4–7 mm, light pink. Capsule 3–5 cm. – Pollen very variable, up to 40% normal. Filled seeds few, less than 5% of normal size.
N Ro Stavanger 2000. S BhG Göteborg (two localities, 1937 and 1951), Ög Norrköping 1961, Srm Nacka (Hammarby sjö) 1922–24, Stockholm (Rackarbergen) 1917 and Upl Stockholm (Djurgården 1917). – Also recorded from F (Kurtto & Lahti 1987). Map (not in the book).
Epilobium ciliatum × tetragonum. A tall strong plant (to 120 cm, to 10 mm thick at base), richly branched above. Glands sparse and short. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, sharply serrate. Sepals with conspicuous red margins. Petals 4–6 mm, purplish pink. Capsule 3–5 cm; seeds with ± conspicuous neck and ridges. – Pollen c. 40% normal. Seed-set up to 10%. – Lit.: Murbeck (1894).
S Gtl Visby 1925, Västergarn 1937 and Upl Stockholm 1892 (the Bergius botanic garden, spontaneous). – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium collinum × lamyi. To 55 cm, with short branches from near the base and densely branched apically. Leaves 20–40 × 5–10 mm. Petals 3–5(–7) mm, sometimes scarcely longer than sepals. Stigma broadly club-shaped with 4 short but conspicuous lobes. Capsule 2.5–5 cm, with many but small glands. – Pollen c. 30% normal. Seed-set 0–10%.
S Bl Ramdala 1905, Upl Norrtälje 1922–23. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium collinum × montanum. Similar to a large-flowered E. collinum, but late flowers sometimes small. Often several-stemmed or early branched from near the base, but small specimens simple. Indumentum on all parts with few to many large glandular hairs as in E. montanum. Leaves vary in outline and margin among collections. Capsule 3.5–5 cm. – Most pollen grains small and variously shaped; 60–70(–90)% at least partially staining but only 10–60% fully normal. Filled seeds mostly very few; sometimes many reaching full size but variously filled.
Apparently not easily formed. Material seen from N He, Op, Bu, Te, AA, Ho, SF, SNo, S Sk, Bl, Klm, BhG, Dls, Vg, Ög, Srm, Ång, F V, U, EH. – Also reported from N Tr (Lid & Lid 2005), S Vrm (Hård 1952; material not convincing), Vsm (Malmgren 1982) and Dlr (Almquist 1949), and A Mariehamn 1936 (Montell 1946). – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium collinum × obscurum. Vegetatively strong plant up to 60 cm or more. Glands few and ± sessile, mostly on fruits and sepals. Leaves small or up to 7 × 1.5 cm, ± narrowly lanceolate, obtuse, short-petiolate, sparsely and obscurely dentate. Racemes becoming long and many-flowered. Stigma of 4 often spreading parts. – Pollen 10–20% normal. Seeds irregularly developed, very few filled.
S Bl Karlskrona (Vämö) 1903, Klm Oskarshamn 1922; an record from BhG Ljung (Ljungskile) 1907 is uncertain. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium collinum × palustre. 25–50 cm, simple or becoming branched above towards autumn, with small branches in many leaf axils and some thin basal runners or shoots especially from late summer; turions dense, 5–8 mm Pubescence dense all around the stem, above and on capsule with relatively few and short glandular hairs. Leaves 3–5 cm, narrowly lanceolate, weakly serrate with few teeth. Stigma funnel-shaped with short lobes. – Pollen irregular in size, shape and staining, 20–30(–50)% normal. Filled seeds 0–10(–50)%, up to 1.5 mm, with inconspicuous necks.
Fairly rare. Material seen from N VA, Ro, SF, ST, NT, NNo, S Sk, Bl, BhG, Dls, Vg, Ög, Vrm, Upl, F EH Heinola 1932 and InL Utsjoki 1958. – Also reported from N AA (Lid & Lid 2005). – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium collinum × roseum. 60–80 cm, becoming much branched especially in the inflorescence. Pubescence of mainly eglandular hairs, but with much more glands than in E. collinum. Leaves conspicuously petiolate, very deeply and irregularly serrate. Fruits only 2–3 cm and thin. – Pollen very irregular in size, shape and staining, with many grains partly staining, only 0–10% normal, sometimes no pollen formed. No filled seeds observed.
N Op Fåberg 1943. S Öl Mörbylånga 1918, Klm Oskarshamn at least 1907–13, SmI Bankeryd 1916—17, BhG Strömstad 1912, Styrsö 1956, Vg Toarp 1898, Srm Utö 1911. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium davuricum × lactiflorum. 10–22 cm, with branching base. Stem simple, hairy on 2–4 lines, more evenly above; most leaves opposite, bracts alternate. Leaves narrowly ovate, obtuse. Inflorescence few-flowered. Petals 2–3 mm, white. Capsule 3–4.5 cm, almost glabrous when ripe. – Pollen very irregular, few normal grains. Filled seeds about 10%, c. 1.6 mm.
Very rare; material seen from N Op Sel 1899 and S Hrj Tännäs 1927. – Also reported from N He, VFi (Lid & Lid 2005) and S Jmt, LL (Haussknecht 1884). – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium davuricum × palustre. 10–20 cm, basal rosette lacking or irregular, most leaves opposite; elongated, thin runners formed in late summer. Leaves 10–25 × 2–3 mm, obtuse. Flowers light pink to pinkish white. Sepals ± fringed on upper margin. Capsule densely hairy, seeds variously filled, largest up to 1.7 mm. Pollen irregular in size, shape, and staining, 30–70% normal.
Apparently a rare hybrid, but easily overlooked because it is closely similar to a small E. palustre. N He, Op, ST, Tr, VFi, ØFi. S Jmt, LL. F at least SoL Pelkosenniemi. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium glandulosum × hirsutum. A tall plant, probably at least 1 m. Stem with many patent hairs. Leaves semi-amplexicaul to decurrent. Petals of well-developed flowers 10–12 mm. Capsule only seen as young, then densely hairy with exclusively glandular hairs.
D ØJy Randers 1982. S BhG Göteborg 1974. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium glandulosum × montanum. 30–100 cm, large individuals becoming much branched above, small ones simple; turions formed late, of glandulosum type. Leaves broadest near the middle, sharply and irregularly serrate. Inflorescence densely glandular; top raceme many-flowered with large bracts. Petals c. 10 mm, pinkish violet. Stigma funnel-shaped, deeply 4-lobed. Capsule 2.5–6 cm. – Pollen 10–20% normal. Filled seeds scarce, hardly over 5%.
D Sjæ Roskilde 1970. N Ak Oslo 1947, Vf Tjøme 1997, AA Risør 1980, VA Kristiansand 1982, Ro Karmøy 1963, Ho Bergen 1952. S Upl Stockholm (Bergius botanic garden) 1924–25. F U Helsinki (first record 1927; at least 4 localities). – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium glandulosum × obscurum. To 35 cm or more, richly branched in the middle part upper half forming a raceme with up to 20 flowers and large, leaf-like bracts. Stem with dense pubescence of eglandular hairs (in upper part also many glandular ones). Leaves sessile to shortly petiolate, lanceolate, lower ones to 5 cm or more, dentate with short but sharp teeth. Sepals with dense eglandular hairs; glandular hairs numerous but aggregated near the base. Petals 5–7 mm, dark purplish. Capsule 2–3.5 cm, with a small neck, with numerous eglandular and some glandular hairs of various length; seeds with papillae (partly joined) in distinct rows. – Pollen not well separating and less than 1% normal; filled seeds few (c. 7%).
S BhG Tanum (Lynghuvudet) 2004. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium glandulosum × palustre. 80 cm or more with 5 mm thick base; forming long-lived clones by several basal and lower cauline thick turions and some thin runners in autumn. Densely glandular in the inflorescence. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, serrate with few and small teeth. Petals 6–8 mm, light purplish pink. Stigma oblong, entire. Capsule 3–5 cm. – Pollen c. 20% normal. Seed-set more than 50%, seeds up to 1.7 mm, variously filled.
Material seen from S BhG Göteborg (at least 4 localities 1949–67), Nrk Götlunda 1987, Srm Brännkyrka (Enskede 1916), Upl Stockholm (Experimentalfältet, at least 1917–46) and F U Helsinki (3 localities 1956–67). – Also reported from N Ro Karmøy (Lid & Lid 2005). – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium glandulosum × parviflorum. A large plant, richly branched and in late summer forming several long inflorescence branches. Hairs on stem and branches partly long and ± patent. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, up to at least 8 cm, sparsely serrate. Capsule 4–6 cm. – Most pollen grains staining but variable in shape and size. Seeds variably developed, up to 50% of normal size, variously filled.
S Upl Stockholm (Experimentalfältet 1920–25). – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium glandulosum × roseum. Moderate-sized or up to 80 cm, becoming richly branched, with mostly short branches at lower nodes, in late summer with several fleshy turions at base. Densely hairy especially in the inflorescence with predominance of glandular hairs. Leaves lanceolate, serrate, all conspicuously petiolate. Inflorescence with large bracts, branches becoming very long. Capsule 1.5–3 cm. – Pollen formation severely disturbed, few normal grains observed. Seeds irregularly developed, filled ones 0–10%.
D Sjæ København (3 localities 1965–72). S BhG Göteborg (Kviberg 1945–46), Partille 1945, Srm Brännkyrka (Enskede 1924–25), Upl Stockholm (Bergius botanic garden 1924, Experimentalfältet 1918–46). – Map (not in the book).

[Epilobium glandulosum × tetragonum. Listed by mistake in Oredsson & Snogerup (1977).]

Epilobium hirsutum × lamyi. 80 cm or taller, with thick stem; densely and mainly eglandular-hairy especially on capsule and base of calyx. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, densely and sharply serrate; lower cauline leaves shortly decurrent, upper ones distinctly so, their lower surface with densely hairy midrib. Capsule 4–6 cm. Pollen very irregular, 0–5% normal. Seed-set very low.
S Sk Helsingborg 1939, Västra Tommarp 2003, Gtl Gammelgarn 1912, Hemse 1962. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium hirsutum × montanum. 80–100 cm, branched only in the inflorescence. Leaves large, widest near base, sessile; base often semiamplexicaul but scarcely decurrent. Petals 10–17 mm, or rarely vestigial. Capsule 20–60 mm. – Pollen irregular, 5–20% normal, or rarely most grains non-staining. Filled seeds sparse or sometimes up to 50%, variable in size and shape.
Rare except in S Sk, where it has been found in several places. D ØJy, LFM, Sjæ, Brn. S Sk, BhG Göteborg 1940, Srm Tveta 1991. F U Helsinki 1920, 1927, 1930. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium hirsutum × obscurum. 1 m or more, becoming intricately branched in late summer. Stem as young densely hairy with semiappressed hairs, old stem parts ± glabrous. Leaves sessile to shortly decurrent, narrowly lanceolate, conspicuously serrate. Petals 10–13 mm, dark reddish purple. Stigma club-shaped, broader above than in E. obscurum. Capsule 40–60 mm. – Pollen grains variable in size, shape and staining, up to 30% normal. Seed-set irregular, filled seeds scarcely up to 10%.
D NJy Sæby 2003, SJy Haderslev 2004. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium hirsutum × palustre. Stem usually simple first, but stunted branches in basal part elongate from late summer, forming variously thick, prolonged, leafy runners in late summer. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, lower ones often to 10 cm, with few and inconspicuous teeth. Capsule 2.5–6 cm. – Pollen 0–30%. Filled seeds 10–20%, even unfilled seeds often with conspicuous neck.
A specimen from D Sjæ Sorø had variously shaped upper leaves, small flowers and severely disturbed pollen formation.
Rarely formed, but sometimes persistent. D NJy Bodum 2004, Rebild 1951, Sjæ Sorø 1992. S Sk 3 localities 1898–1925, Öl Kastlösa 1913–24, Vg Bolum 1956–58, Våmb 1917, 1946. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium hirsutum × parviflorum. Similar to E. hirsutum × palustre, but the leaves have longer teeth and are much more densely hairy above, with longer hairs. – Vigorous, mostly 80–120 cm, becoming densely branched above, forming large clones by subterranean and surface runners with loose turions of obovate to spathulate leaves in autumn. Stem with patent, sometimes slightly crispate hairs. Leaves sessile or with short, winged petiole, cauline ones abruptly contracted at base; margins not or very shortly decurrent. Petals usually 8–15 mm, rarely smaller or vestigial, light to dark purplish pink. Stigma with 4 divergent branches. Capsule 3–6 cm.– Pollen ± irregular in size and shape, (0–)20–80% stainable. Seed-set usually less than 50%. Some specimens more fertile and then probably not F1 hybrids.
Found repeatedly in several places in S Sk and sometimes forming long-persistent clones; elsewhere probably rarely formed. D single records from NJy, FyL, LFM, Sjæ and Brn. S Sk numerous records but after 1970 only Svensköp 1992, Öl Kastlösa 1913­–24, Mörbylånga 1910–18, Resmo 1924, Gtl Lummelunda 1939 and Visby 1927.  – Also recorded from Vg (Bertilsson et al. 2000), but the material has been redetermined to E. hirsutum × palustre. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium hirsutum × roseum. Vigorous, 50–100 cm, becoming richly branched in autumn. Stem with semi-appressed, slightly crispate hairs. Leaves ± narrowly lanceolate, sharply and often irregularly serrate with short winged petiole, very shortly decurrent on stem. Petals 8–10 mm, pinkish purple (or sometimes failing to develop). Capsule 3.5–5 cm, with many glandular hairs. – Pollen various, sometimes up to 50% normal and stainable. Seed-set 0 or in some capsules up to 10%.
Rare but sometimes long-persisting. D FyL Svendborg 2004, Sjæ Kattehale Mose 1981, København 1969. S Sk 4 records 1900–69, Bl Karlskrona 1919, Öl Mörbylånga 1907–24, Kastlösa 1913–22, Vg Våmb 1917. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium hirsutum × tetragonum. Probably to 1 m, much branched, densely and evenly hairy with almost exclusively eglandular hairs. Leaves narrowly lanceolate with conspicuous teeth, shortly decurrent. Petals c. 10 mm, light purplish. Capsule 35–50 mm. – Pollen c. 15% normal. Seeds irregularly developed, few fully filled.
D NJy Ålborg 1995, Sjæ Ishøj 1986. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium hornemannii × lactiflorum. 15–30 cm, with c. 1 mm thick subterranean runners, often forming tuft-like stands. Leaves few, upper ones alternate; lower and middle leaves elliptic, obtuse, upper ones lanceolate. Inflorescence becoming long and many flowered. Sepals mostly with conspicuous red margin. Petals 5–8 mm, whitish pink to light purple. Capsule mostly 20–35 mm; seed hairs 6–7 mm. – Pollen often 90–100% staining but many grains irregular in size and shape, scarcely over 30% normal. Percentage of filled seeds varying among capsules, often low but sometimes up to 80%.
Often difficult to distinguish from E. lactiflorum and probably overlooked. Probably not only F1 hybrids. Material seen from N Ak, He, Te, Ho, ST, S Dlr, Hls, Mpd, Hrj, Jmt, LyL, LL, TL and F EnL. – Also reported from N AA Bykle (Lid & Lid 2005), S Ång (Mascher 1990) and PL (Wistrand 1962). – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium hornemannii × palustre. 10–30(–40) cm, producing some ± filiform stolons at least in late summer. Stem simple or with some short branch, and often with stunted branches in many leaf axils, densely hairy on lines, sparsely between; often with (2–)4–6 pairs of leaves below the inflorescence. Leaves lanceolate, with small but conspicuous teeth, the lower cauline ones often the largest; bracts smaller and narrower than cauline leaves. Petals 5–7(–8) mm. Capsule mostly 2–3.5 cm, ± densely hairy with many glandular and few to many curved, eglandular hairs. – Pollen mostly 5–20% normal, rarely up to 80% but probably not in F1 hybrids. Seed-set usually much disturbed, 10% or less, often some or most seeds large but empty; filled seeds usually 1.2–1.5 mm.
Fairly common where the parents occur together; long-persistent by vegetative propagation, but sometimes forming hybrid swarms varying in habit, leaf shape and flower size. Material seen from N Ak, He, Op, Te, Bu, SF, ST, NNo, S all provinces south to Dlr and Gst (Ockelbo 1992), F PS (Vieremä 1918), Kn, OP, PeP, Ks, KiL, SoL, EnL, InL, I IVe Miðdalir. – Also reported from N Tr (Lid & Lid 2005). – Map (not in the book).
This hybrid is similar to E. alsinifolium × palustre; to tell them apart combine size of filled seeds, number of cauline leaves, size of flowers, and the shape of various parts.
[Epilobium lactiflorum × montanum. By mistake listed by Oredsson & Snogerup (1975–77).]
Epilobium lactiflorum × palustre. 15–30 cm; usually a thin plant with few leaf-pairs, forming thin prolonged runners in late summer. Leaves 15–25 × 3–7 mm. Inflorescence simple, elongating. Petals up to 7 mm, light purplish. Capsule 15–40 mm. – Pollen most ± staining but very irregular, up to 50% normal; filled seeds 5–20%, with long seed hairs.
N Ho Voss 1891. S Mpd Ljustorp 1910, LyL Lycksele 2 localities 1934. – Also reported from N Op, Te, ST (Lid & Lid 2005) and S LL (Selander 1950). – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium laestadii × palustre. 20–50 cm; stem rather thin with few pairs of leaves. Leaves 20–40 × 2–4 mm, obtuse, mostly subglabrous. Inflorescence mostly several-flowered, becoming elongated; lower pedicels often 30–60 mm; flowers light to dark purplish. Capsule 25–30 mm. – Seed-set totally failing or filled seeds up to 20%.
Apparently rare, only collected from 4 places, but scarcely detected without specialist study of the populations. F Ks Kuusamo 1996, KiL Kittilä 1997, Kolari 2 localities 1998, Muonio 1996. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium lamyi × montanum. 35–100 cm, becoming much branched in upper, flowering part. Glands very few and short. Leaves lanceolate, cauline ones wide with ± cordate base, sharply serrate. Stigma of 4 scarcely divergent lobes. Capsule 3–6 cm. – Pollen mostly 50–80% normal, most grains staining. Sometimes apparently 50–80% filled seeds, but of different sizes and variously filled
D NJy Sejlflod 2004. S Sk several localities, first record 1893, in Lund at least 1910–89, Öl Vickleby 1920–21, Resmo 1924, Hl Östra Karup 1905, BhG Ljung 1907. – Published also from F (Kurtto & Lahti 1987), but the material has been redetermined. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium lamyi × obscurum. A tall plant, becoming intricately branched towards autumn. Densely hairy especially on midribs of upper leaves beneath and on base of calyx; glandular hairs very few, only found on base of calyx in some flowers. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, sharply but irregularly serrate. Capsule 2.5–3.5 cm. – Filled seeds c. 50%.
D Sjæ Sorgenfri 1944. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium lamyi × palustre. 70 cm or taller, richly branched, with thin basal runners. Leaves to 80 × 15 mm, narrowly lanceolate, weakly and irregularly serrate, upper ones densely hairy on midrib below. Densely hairy on calyx base and capsules (no ripe ones seen). – Pollen very irregularly developed.
S Sk Brunnby 1954. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium lamyi × parviflorum. 60–80 cm, with intricately long-branched, leafy inflorescence; in autumn generating axillary branches on stem and in inflorescence and basal elongated turions of obovate-spathulate leaves. Glands small but many especially on capsules. Stigma of 4 scarcely divergent parts. Capsule 3–5 cm. – Pollen very variable, c. 50% normal. Seed-set irregular, mostly less than 20% filled seeds.
S Sk 5 localities 1884–1978, Öl Vickleby 1920, Gtl Stånga 1930, BhG Ljung 1907. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium lamyi × roseum. Leaves lanceolate, ± coarsely serrate, lower ones shortly petiolate, upper ones conspicuously so. Pubescence of mainly eglandular hairs, especially dense on base of calyx; glands few, sessile, only on calyx. – Seed-set irregular, with many half-filled seeds. Material with well-developed flowers not seen.
S Sk Brunnby 1958, Färlöv 1912, Malmö 1885, Öl at least Vickleby 1920—22, Srm Vagnhärad 1893. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium lamyi × tetragonum. Vegetatively more like E. tetragonum, but midrib sparsely to moderately hairy underneath. Petals 4–6 mm. Capsule sometimes up to 90 mm, well-developed. – Anthers often vestigial. Pollen variable in size and shape, proportion of normal grains 35–70%. Filled seeds 70–100%, proportion often varying among capsules.
Rarely reported and probably overlooked. . D scattered in ØJy, FyL, LFM and Sjæ. S Sk 4 records 1885 and 1996–2004, Öl Skogsby 1872, Vickleby 1919–20, Gtl at least Etelhem 1918, Upl Östra Ryd 2000. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium montanum × obscurum. Medium-sized plant or sometimes up to 1 m, branched above into an inflorescence becoming intricate towards autumn; some short thick runners from late summer. Glands mostly short, frequent only on sepals and capsule. Lower leaves elliptical, obtuse. Upper leaves lanceolate with broad base, conspicuously serrate. Petals (5–)7–9 mm, ± dark purplish pink. Stigma funnel-shaped of 4 basally connate parts. Capsule 3–5 cm. – Pollen very variable, mostly 5–25% normal. Filled seeds mostly scarce, rarely up to 50%, c. 1 mm.
Not rare where the parents meet. D NJy and ØJy several localities, also recent collections, Sjæ Ishøj 1977, Brn Åker 1978. N Ho Bergen 1884. S Sk (mainly old records, most recent Höör 1998), Bl (many localities, latest record Nättraby 1947), Öl Torslunda 1916, Klm (latest collection from Kläckeberga 1923), SmI (4 collections 1819—1992), Hl Hasslöv 1962, BhG latest Torpa 1955, Dls Åmål 1908, Vg Skövde 1910, Srm Utö 1929, Upl Värmdö 1909. V Korppoo 1990’s. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium montanum × palustre. Small to stout, (30–)50–90 cm, often branched from the base; from late summer forming dense, subglobose turions and some thin runners. Stem evenly hairy all around. Leaves lanceolate, lower ones partly serrate, upper ones more densely and sharply so. Glandular hairs numerous. Capsule 2.5–4 cm. – Pollen mostly 10–15% normal, most grains non-staining. Proportion of filled seeds variable, usually very low; filled seeds 1.4–1.6 mm, neck inconspicuous.
Numerous records, but few recent ones. Material seen from D NJy, ØJy, VJy, Sjæ, N He, VA, Ho, SNo, S all provinces north to Upl and Dlr except Gtl and Hl, F V, U, EH and ES. – Also reported from N Bu (Lid & Lid 2005), but the voucher is not convincing. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium montanum × parviflorum. Similar to E. parviflorum (2) but leaves wide, sharply serrate. Mostly vigorous, 70–100 cm (rarely, in dry situations, only 15 cm or smaller); stem first simple, from late summer much branched in the inflorescence region. Turions late-forming, rather dense, sessile rosettes of obovate leaves. Glandular hairs frequent in inflorescence. Leaves rarely in whorls of 3. Petals mostly 8–12 mm, rarely small to vestigial. Stigma of 4 patent lobes. Capsule 2.5 – 5 cm. – Anthers often small to vestigial. Pollen very variable, (0–)30–40% normal. Seed-set variable; up to 20% filled seeds, some seeds often large but empty.
Formerly fairly often found, but nowadays very rarely reported. Material seen from D ØJy, FyL, LFM, Sjæ, Brn, S Sk (at least 50 collections from many localities, but most before 1940, latest record Tjörnarp 1968), Öl at least Kastlösa 1908 and Vickleby 1919–24, Gtl 3 localities 1912–45, Vg Kinnekulle 1928, 1936, Våmb 1909–11, Srm Nämdö 1934, Upl at least 4 localities 1918–49 and F A Mariehamn 1907, Finström 1931, Vårdö 1943–62. – Also reported from S Hl (Georgson et al. 1997), but the material has been redetermined. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium montanum × parviflorum × roseum. Differs from E. montanum × parviflorum by long petioles and light flowers with darker lines. – Seed-set varying, but up to 50% filled seeds in some capsules.
Found in a mixed stand of E. montanum × parviflorum and E. roseum in S Öl Vickleby 1919–24. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium montanum × roseum. Vital plant, 40–100 cm, densely glandular above, often with thick, submerged, rooting basal part, without runners, in autumn forming small, dense, sessile turions; mostly soon branched from near base or only above; inflorescence branches becoming much prolonged towards autumn. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, widest near base, often deeply and sharply serrate, especially the upper ones conspicuously petiolate. Petals mostly 8–12 mm (rarely much smaller), light purplish pink. Stigma of 4 scarcely spreading parts. Capsule 3–4.5(–6) cm. – Pollen 20–30(–50)% normal, varying in size and staining. Filled seeds 5–20 or sometimes up to c. 50 (–80)%, but seeds unequal in size.
Found in several places where the parents meet, sometimes forming large stands. D NJy, ØJy, FyL, LFM, Sjæ. N Øf, Ak, Vf, Te, Ho, ST. S Sk (numerous records up to 1970, and Össjö 1992), Bl, Öl, Klm, SmI, BhG, Vg, Ög, Srm, Upl. F U Helsinki 1919. – Map (not in the book).
[Epilobium montanum × tetragonum. Listed by Hylander (1955) and Oredsson & Snogerup (1975–77) but no correctly determined material has been found.]
Epilobium obscurum × palustre. 50–70 cm, sparsely branched as young, becoming much branched in autumn, with some thin runners from late summer; turions not observed. Stem densely hairy, evenly above, below mainly in lines. Glands many in the inflorescence. Leaves linear-lanceolate, mostly with few, short teeth, rarely subentire. Petals 5–8 mm, dark pinkish purple. Stigma club-shaped. Capsule 3–5.5 cm. – Pollen 15–30(–40)% normal, very irregular. Filled seeds very few or occasionally up to 25%, 1.3–1.6 mm, with inconspicuous neck.
Certainly often overlooked. D scattered records, also recent ones, from NJy, ØJy and VJy. N Øf Halden 1938, Vf Borre 1917, VA Kristiansand 1884. S numerous records from Sk (but only 2 after 1970), single records from Bl, Öl, Gtl, Klm, SmI, BhG, Vg, Dls and Srm. F V Nauvo 1987–91. – Also reported from S Hl and Nrk (Georgson et al. 1977, Kjellmert 1947), but the specimens have not been found. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium obscurum × parviflorum. 70–90 cm, in early summer simple, becoming much branched towards autumn; base often thick, ± submerged, in late summer forming short, thick runners. Stem moderately densely hairy with eglandular, curled, spreading hairs (longer than in E. obscurum); glandular hairs in the inflorescence only. Leaves short-petiolate, ± narrowly lanceolate; base truncate; teeth many, conspicuous but short; hairs fairly sparse, curled. Petals (5–)7–10 mm, dark pinkish purple, becoming paler during anthesis. Stigma 4-parted with erect lobes. Capsule 2.5–4(–5) cm. – Pollen (5–)25–35(–60)% normal, irregular in size, shape and staining, or pollen formation severely disturbed. Seed-set irregular, filled seeds often c. 20% (but sometimes up to 80% in part of a capsule), 0.8–1 mm.
Fairly rare; probably not only F1 hybrids. D several records (also recent ones) from NJy, ØJy and SJy; FyL Ringe 2004, Sjæ København 1911. S numerous records from Sk (but after 1970 only Östra Strö 2004); else only single old records: Bl Bräkne-Hoby 1943, Öl 4 localities 1906–21, Gtl Atlingbo 1929, Klm Kalmar 1923, Hl Östra Karup 1905, 1929, Vg Våmb 1909, Upl Bo 1928–29. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium obscurum × roseum. 50–80 cm, often with thick, long, submerged or subterranean basal part; early branching, inflorescences often elongated with large bracts. Leaves lanceolate, all ± conspicuously petiolate, many upper ones alternate, lower ones often to 7(–10) cm, sharply and irregularly serrate. Glandular hairs few, mainly on fruit and calyx. Petals 4–7 mm, of various purplish colours. Stigma short, club-shaped. Capsule 3.5–5.5 cm. – Pollen mostly 5–10% normal, most grains non-staining. Filled seeds very few, scarcely above 2%, c. 1 mm.
Fairly rare. D NJy Siverslet Skov 1919. S Sk several records 1885–1966, Bl 3 localities 1909–38, Öl at least Vickleby 1919, Klm Kalmar 1885, 1915, SmI Växjö 1919–25, Hl Östra Karup 1905, BhG Angered 1934, Mölndal 1940, 1945, Vg 3 localities 1905–21. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium palustre × parviflorum. 40–100 cm, sparsely or towards autumn densely branched above, with branching rhizome. Upper part of stem ± evenly hairy; glandular hairs common in inflorescence; some eglandular hairs often long, patent to crispate. Runners often early formed, up to at least 10 cm long, mostly 0.5–1 mm thick, with apical rosettes of obovate-spathulate leaves. Leaves sessile to short-stalked, ± narrowly lanceolate, entire to sparsely dentate. Racemes often long in late anthesis. Petals 7–10 mm. Stigma funnel-shaped, ± 4-lobed. Capsule 3–4.5(–6) cm. – Pollen very variable in staining, size and shape, 5–40(–75)% normal. Seed-set irregular, filled seeds (0–)5–20%, 1.3–1.5 mm; neck lacking or inconspicuous, but often conspicuous in failed seeds.
Apparently easily formed; sometimes long-persistent, e.g. S Upl Danmark (Bergsbrunna) at least 1841–1914. D NJy, ØJy, SJy, FyL, Sjæ, Brn. S Sk, Bl, Öl, Gtl, Hl, BhG, Vg, Ög, Srm, Upl. – Also reported from S Vsm (Malmgren 1982). – Map (not in the book).
[Epilobium palustre × parviflorum × roseum. Reported from S Öl and BhG (Sterner 1986, Fries 1971), but no material has been found from Öl, and the material from BhG was redetermined to E. parviflorum × roseum. – Background data]
Epilobium palustre × roseum. 40–80 cm, early branching from the base, from late summer with many thin, intricate branches; often with some thin runners; ± evenly hairy, with many glandular hairs. Leaves elliptic, tapering to both ends, petiolate, sparsely serrate. Petals 6–8 mm, pale purplish pink. Capsule 3–6 cm. – Anthers mostly small to vestigial; pollen, when formed, very irregular in shape and staining. Filled seeds up to 10(–20)%, 1.4–1.6 mm, neck absent or inconspicuous. – A more fertile form, probably not F1, was collected in S Upl Stockholm (Djurgården).
Sometimes forming large and vital stands. D ØJy Århus 1992, Sjæ København 1882, Køge 1929, Brn Almindingen 1940, Klemensker 1977. N Ro Rennesøy 2000. S Sk, Bl, Öl, SmI, Hl, BhG, Vg, Srm, Upl. F V Turku 1948.Map (not in the book).
Epilobium parviflorum × roseum. A vigorous perennial, 60–100 cm, branched from the base or in the upper part, becoming intricately branched in the inflorescence, forming basal runners, towards autumn with lax turions of broad, ± fleshy leaves. Stem with fairly dense, curled but not appressed hairs, and usually with some glands (hairs long and patent in E. parviflorum, short, curled and appressed in E. roseum). Leaves lanceolate, ± conspicuously petiolate, blade often abruptly narrowing to the petiole; upper surface fairly densely hairy with short hairs (with dense, long hairs in E. parviflorum, almost glabrous in E. roseum). Petals often small, rarely to 8(–11) mm, often light purplish pink. Capsule mostly 20–40 mm, rarely to 60 mm. – Anthers often vestigial, without any ripe pollen. Pollen, when formed, variously and irregularly developed, 0–20 or rarely up to 40% normal. Filled seeds 0–10%. In a few cases individuals with better seed-set and up to 80% normal pollen have been found, probably representing F2 or backcrosses.
Often formed where the parents meet, and sometimes remaining long. D seen from all provinces except VJy (several records from Sjæ and Brn). S fairly common in Sk and Öl, scattered to rare in Bl, Gtl, Hl, BhG, Vg, Ög, Srm and Upl.Map (not in the book).
Epilobium parviflorum × tetragonum. 40–80 cm, with thick basal part; branched above or later also below; in late autumn forming loose, long-leaved turions. Pubescence of long eglandular hairs, some patent-crispate on stem; glandular hairs few or almost lacking. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, with broad, truncate base, serrate with short but distinct teeth, evenly hairy on surface and midrib. Stigma of 4 not divergent lobes. Capsule 3.5–6 cm. – Anthers mostly vestigial; pollen variable in size and shape, 0–20% normal and staining. Filled seeds 0–10% or rarely to 50% in some capsules.
Rare but sometimes long-persistent. D Sjæ Slagelse 2001, LFM Musse 1926, Onsevig Skov 1944. S Sk Lund 1898, 1906, Malmö 1884, Öl at least Mörbylånga 1885–1924, Gtl Stånga 1930, Visby 1919, 1921, Öja (Burgsvik) 1928. – Map (not in the book).
Epilobium roseum × tetragonum. 90–120 cm, branched almost from the base, upper flowering branches becoming long; small, ± fleshy turions forming in autumn. Leaves conspicuously petiolate, narrowly lanceolate, sharply and densely serrate, upper ones sparsely hairy on midrib below. Petals 4–8 mm, light purplish pink with dark lines. Capsule 2.5–6 cm. – Pollen irregularly developed, in one case up to 30% normal. Filled seeds sparse or rarely up to 20%.
S Sk Lund several collections 1894–1920, Malmö 1884, Uppåkra 1906, Öl at least Mörbylånga (several collections 1883–1924), BhG Göteborg 1926–37, Uddevalla 1956. – Map (not in the book).

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