Taxa treated:

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 © Flora Nordica

by Lars Fröberg
(6a, 20081016)

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Falcaria Fabr., nom. cons.

Fabricius, Enum.: 34 (1759).

Falcaria vulgaris Bernh.              map

Bernhardi, Syst. Verz.: 176 (1800). – Sium falcaria L., Sp. pl.: 252 (1753). – F. rivini Host (1827), nom. illeg. – Type: Clifford Herbarium 98, Sium 5 (BM) lectotype, sel. by Rechinger, Fl. Iranica 162: 306 (1987).
F. sioides (Wibel) Aschers. (1866).
D Seglblad. F sirppiputki. N sagkjeks. S skärblad.
Hemicryptophyte (biennial or perennial). Usually glaucous and glabrous, richly branched herb, to 90 cm, with a scent as in Apium graveolens; tap­root 4–13 mm thick, vertical. Stem solid; basal part (1.5–)2.5–5 mm thick, terete to angular, rarely purplish, and with remains of dead leaves. Leaves 1–3 at the base and up to 15 on the stem, one of the basal or the lowest stem leaf is the largest one; sheath narrow, sometimes purplish, distinctly clasping, without a distinct limit towards the petiole, sometimes reaching the blade; blade 1-pinnate, (12–)15–25(–31) × 10–18(–27) cm (length/width ratio 0.7–2.2). Primary leaflets usually 1 pair, falcate; angle leaflet/rachis 25–45°. Apical leaflet entire or 1-pinnatifid, with 1–2 pairs of falcate lobes; petiolule 11–42(–78) mm; base attenuate; lobe apices acute or sometimes acuminate; margin serrate to doubly serrate with acute to acuminate, cartilaginous, white teeth. Apical lobe 7.1–16.5(–20.5) × 0.6–1.8(–2.1) cm (length/width ratio (6.3–)9.3–16), with 3–7 parallel veins.
Umbels almost flat, 3–4 cm high and 6.5–9 cm wide, assembled in dense corymbs; peduncle 5–9 cm; rays straight, 2.5–5 cm, glabrous. Bracts 5–10, persistent, 9–25 × 0.4–0.9 mm, entire; border not membranous. Umbellules (12–)17–22; pedicels 8–13 mm, glabrous. Bractlets 5–7, persistent, 6–12 × 0.3–0.5 mm; border not membranous. Flowers not zygomorphic, 8–13 per umbellule; sepals 0.2–0.5 mm; petals white, 0.7–1.3 × 0.7–1.1 mm, emarginate (apical cut 0.1–0.3 mm deep); filaments 1–1.7 mm; anthers 0.35–0.5 mm, with purplish connectives. Fruit oblong in outline, slightly laterally flattened; carpophore flattened, divided to the base. Mericarps 2.5–4.6 × 0.5–0.9 × 0.5–0.9 mm (length/width ratio (3.0–)4.9–7.2); ridges 5, straw-coloured, in cross section low and rounded; valleculae as wide as the ridges, each with 1 dark brown vitta visible on the surface; stylopodium conical, 0.3–0.6 mm wide; style 0.7–1.1 mm, directed outwards or deflexed, with purplish stigma. – Late summer to early autumn.
2n=22 (S Sk). [2n=22]
Distribution. Nem–SBor. – Brought in, at least partly, with cereals (first record Sk 1805); ± established in the southern parts, casual further north. – D scattered but fairly rare and declining in most of the eastern islands and northern and eastern Jylland; casual in VJy Fjaltring 1954, Tofterup 1977, Bøvlingbjerg 2003, and SJy 4 finds 1921–74. Sk c. 20 localities in the south (15 recent), and Åhus 1912–22 (harbour), Ivetofta 1907–39, Ängelholm 1995–2006, Öl c. 10 localities in central and southern parts, ± established, Gtl c. 10 localities (most near Visby), Vg Lerdala 1950 (still 2000), Upl Bondkyrka (Malma/Valsätra) known since 1939 (see Almqvist 1965; locality destroyed 1978); casual in Klm Kalmar 1901, Västervik 1910–54 (probably not established); BhG Göteborg 1952, Ög Dagsberg 1967–81, Östra Ny 1894–1912, Vreta Kloster 1991, 1992, Upl Uppsala (Valsåker) 1915, Skokloster 1915–20, Lovö 1978, Hls Ljusne 1902–07. – Published from S Srm (Lid 1963), probably in error. Reports from F EH Tampere 1973 and Nokia 1975 are probably due to mislabelled specimens.
C Europe to Turkey and SW Siberia.

Habitat. Sun-exposed, man-influenced ground with rather dry, sandy or clayey, usually lime-rich soil (e.g., roadsides, fields, railways and mill areas); at least in Denmark also on coastal slopes.

Variation. Some specimens from D and Sk, Öl have more or less papillose stems and leaves, but no other character is correlated.

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