Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 256 (1753).
Small annuals with narrow-lobed leaves. Umbels sessile or short-stalked, without bracts and with rather few rays. Bractlets entire or serrate to lobed. Flowers not to distinctly zygomorphic, without sepals; petals white. Fruit elongated, with a laterally slightly flattened seed-bearing part, and a dorsiventrally flattened to ± terete beak (parts equally long or the beak longer); ridges low, straw-coloured to greenish (as the beak); valleculae wide, each with 1 dark brown vitta visible on the surface; stylopodium high-arched to stipitate, discoidal; style thick and short.
Chromosome base-number x=7, 9, 11.
Scandix pecten-veneris L. ill.
Linnaeus, Sp. pl.: 256 (1753). – Type: Linnaean Herbarium 364.2 (LINN) lectotype, sel. by Jafri, Fl. Libya, 117: 20 (1985).
D Jomfrukam. F sarjaputki. N venuskam. S nålkörvel.
Therophyte (summer- or winter-annual). To 30 cm. Stem usually hollow; basal part 1–2.5 mm thick, angular to slightly sulcate, usually slightly violet, glabrous or usually sparsely covered with short hairs, not or slightly glaucous. Leaves 3–7 at the base and 2–5 on the stem (the innermost basal one or the lowest stem leaf is the largest); sheath rather broad, usually not purplish, membrane-bordered, ciliate; petiole 1.5–7(–11) cm; blade 1–2-pinnate, 2–6(–9) × 1.5–3.5(–6) cm (length/width ratio 1.4–2). Primary leaflets 3–4 pairs; angle leaflet/rachis 40–60°; longest petiolules 3–13 mm. Ultimate leaflets (2–)3(–4)-pinnatifid, with 2–3(–4) pairs of lobes/teeth; petiolule 3–9 mm; blade 6–13 × 9–17 mm (length/width ratio 0.7–0.9); base shallowly cordate to shortly attenuate; margin and midrib slightly papillose beneath. Ultimate lobes 2–3.3(–4.9) × 0.5–1(–1.4) mm, with a length/width ratio of 3.1–4.2(–5); apices acute, with mostly hyaline tips.
Umbels with a 0–3.5(–7) cm long peduncle; rays 1.5–2.5(–3.5) cm, glabrous. Umbellules (1–)2(–3); pedicels 0.2–0.5 cm, thick, glabrous. Bractlets 8–12, free or connate at the base in groups of 2–3, entire or with 1–4 teeth (occasionally leaf-like in primary umbel), persistent, green (no membranous border), ciliate. Flowers distinctly to slightly zygomorphic, 5–11(–16) per umbellule; petals 1.5–3.5 × 1–1.9 mm, entire to bifid (apical cut to 0.5 mm deep); filaments 1.2–1.9 mm; anthers 0.4–0.5 mm. Fruit linear in outline, from dorsiventral view usually widest at the border between the seed-bearing part and the beak. Mericarps (14–)37–60 × 1.5–2.2 × 1–1.5 mm (see subspecies), with a length/width ratio of 18–36; seed-bearing part and edges of beak covered with bristles; beak flattened or slightly grooved on ventral side, usually straw-coloured: stylopodium dark violet, 0.4–0.7 mm wide; style (0.3–)0.9–1.3 mm, straw-coloured, directed upwards. – Early summer.
A. subsp. pecten-veneris map
F kampasarjaputki. S äkta nålkörvel.
Bractlets 4.5–8 × 1.2–1.4 mm. Mericarps 37–72 mm; beak 26–49 mm, occupying 70–82% of total mericarp length; style 0.7–0.8 mm.
2n=26 (S Sk). – [2n=26]
Distribution. An archaeosynanthropic field weed in eastern D and southern S (recent finds only in S Öl and Gtl), elsewhere a casual alien, mainly brought in with ballast (late 19th and early 20th century) or with grain, in F probably also (1940’s) with German straw. – D according to Lange (1886–88) and Jessen & Lind (1922-23) a weed of cereal fields once common in LFM and known as such also from NJy, ØJy, VJy, FyL and Sjæ; latest province records FyL Tranderup 1926, Brn Grisby 1943, ØJy Århus 1945, VJy Troldhede before 1950, LFM Maribo and Møns Klint 1960, NJy Gudumholm 1962, Sjæ Amager 1973. N Øf Fredrikstad 1878, 1892, 1894, Ak Oslo 1874, 1884 (both ballast), 1882, Vf Tønsberg end of 19th century (ballast), AA Lillesand 1907, 1909, VA Kristiansand 1881, 1906 (both mill) and Mandal 1882 (ballast), MR Kristiansund 1868, ST Røros 1910 and Trondheim 1906. S Sk c. 10 localities, mainly near the coast, most recent in Örja 1952–57 (field weed), Öl widespread as a field weed but most records from the central parts (recent ones from at least five parishes), Gtl a fairly common field weed during the 19th century, late 20th century c. 20 localities in the south and Fårö 1987, Hangvar 1996 and Roma 1985; elsewhere casual north to Mpd Timrå 1907 and Skön 1911 (both ballast), and Vb Umeå 1900 (ballast). F A Finström 1883, Mariehamn 1904 (docks), V Turku 1947–61 (from botanic garden), U Helsinki 1899 (gravel heap), 1929 and 1930 (docks), Porvoo 1903 (ballast), St Pori 1911 (docks), EP Kristiinankaupunki 1944–46 (German polemochore in docks), Vaasa 1883 (mill) and 1943 (docks, German polemochore), KP (docks, German polemochore) Pietarsaari 1943 and Kokkola 1943, 1946 and 1947, OP Oulu 1899 (ballast), 1946 (German polemochore). – Also reported from N Ho (Hultén 1971), S Dlr (Almquist 1949), Hls (Wiström 1898) and Nb (Hultén 1971), but no specimens have been found.
S, W and C Europe, N Africa and SW Asia; introduced in other parts of the world.
Habitat. A poor competitor growing in full sun; as a weed of arable fields on clayey, calcareous dry soils (usually with cereals); as a casual alien in ballast places, docks, mills, dumps and other waste ground.
B. subsp. brachycarpa
(Guss.) Thell. 1926. S
späd nålkörvel. – Bractlets
1–4 mm. Mericarps
14–17.5 mm; beak occypying 60–65% of total mericarp length; style 0.3–0.4 mm (shorter and thicker than in S. balansae
Ak Oslo 1874 (ballast), ST
Trondheim 19th century (ballast). S Gtl
Visby 1903. – SE Europe. – Map
(not in the book).
Reut. ex Boiss. 1872. S
turkisk nålkörvel. – Lit.
Hedge & Lamond (1972), Högström (1987, also ill.). – Umbels
with (2–)3–6 rays; bractlets entire, 1.5–3 mm. Flowers
± zygomorphic. Mericarps
8–15 mm; beak occupying 50–60% of total mericarp length; style c. 0.5 mm.
Öja 1913 (roadside). – Turkey. – Map
(not in the book).
M. Bieb. 1808. S
kaukasisk nålkörvel. – Lit.
Rechinger (1987, ill.). – Umbels
with (3–)6–9 rays; bractlets entire, 2–3 mm, distinctly membrane-bordered and ciliate. Flowers
distinctly zygomorphic. Mericarps
25–55 mm; beak occupying 75–90% of total mericarp length, less flattened than in S. pecten-veneris
; style 1.5–2.2 mm. – [2n=18]
Angered 1952, 1953 (mill), Lundby 1952–56 (mill) and Göteborg 1953 (Ringön, with fruit from Italy and the Canary Isles, and Skräppekärr). F V
Naantali 1948 (vetch field), Raisio 1953–54 (mill dump), U
Helsinki 1949 (railway), St
Loimaa 1954 (mill), EH
Orivesi 1949 (vetch field); according to Suominen (1979) brought in with seed import from Turkey, in 1948 with vetch and in 1952 with rye. – SW Asia. – Map
(not in the book).
Banks & Sol. 1794. S
stjärnkörvel. – Lit.
Täckholm (1974, ill.). – Umbels
with 1–3(–5) rays. Bractlets
distinctly pinnatifid, with linear, patent lobes, 9–16 mm. Umbellules
with spreading fruits. Flowers
not or only slightly zygomorphic. Mericarps
19–24 mm; beak occupying 60–70% of total mericarp length; valleculae wide; style 0.2 mm. – [2n=20, 22]
Lundby 1952-53 (mill), Upl
Uppsala 1961 (waste ground). – S Europe, SW Asia and N Africa. – Map
(not in the book).